A Beginner's Guide to Website Speed Optimization (WordPress-Friendly)
Gender and age differences in same-sex aggregation and social behavior: A An analysis of the functional nature of adolescents' supportive relationships. from 572233.info lieps/572233.info [AQ: This URL generates an abilities/572233.info?css=print National Institute of Neurological . The main component (AppComponent) contains the HTML and logic for ( Optionally) a CSS file to customise the appearance of the rendered content it needs to do; including which dependency packages should be installed . As a reminder, here is the relationship between these common files (and. Aggregation is not aggravation. In Java it means that a relationship exists between classes, but it's only one-way. This lesson will highlight the.
Set a px width in ems for our layer: So we can calculate what 1px is in ems: Ems allow only three decimal places. More is fine in calculations but before writing CSS, round it up to three. Then multiply by to get ems: Find 1px is in ems for that element.
Multiple that by the pixel value you require to get the em equivalent. Apply the width in ems, center the layer in the viewport using the auto left and right margins, give it a 1px gray border with a white background and align the text left: While we're here, we might as well add some typographic goodness by selecting a basic leading and adding some vertical rhythmwith everything expressed in ems.
It is expressed in CSS as line-height but instead of adding space below, it increases the space above and below each line of text.
The heading font size will be 18px. The paragraph font size will be 12px with an 18px line height. Everything else will be proportional to that. A note on CSS inheritance: Set a 12px font size with 18px line height and margin for paragraphs: From our previous calculation, we already know that 1px is 0.
We simply multiple that by 12 to get the em value for 12px: To calculate the desired line height and margin of 18px for our basic leading we do the following: In this example, the line height is 1 and a half times the font size: Add line height and margin properties to the CSS: OK, cool, make line height and margin 1.
So, we already know what 1px is from before: We simply multiple that by 18 to get the em value for 18px: If the font size is 18px then 18px in ems is 1em! Sizing Images in ems To retain the rhythm of the the example pagethe size of an image should be a multiple of the basic leading.
It has right and bottom margins of 18px and is floated left in the paragraph text. Pingdom external services External services typically bring with them two problems. One is brought about by sheer volume, the other has to do with waiting until they load. The more calls you have, the more you wait, the higher the load on your own server and the higher chance you have of bumping into the second issue.
If the service is called in the header and there is a service interruption your page will simply refuse to load. Intrusive pop-up ads further aggravate visitors into abandoning websites at even higher rates. Affiliate code, even just those few additional lines of script take up valuable memory space on the hosting environment and require additional processing cycles in delivering the content to end-users. Nevertheless, online advertisement is the primary source of income for many online businesses think Google and Facebook!
Bloated Design Theme and Incompatible Multimedia Tempting website design themes and multimedia content are head turners for online traffic. That is if the content even reaches the eyes of impatient visitors fast enough. High-quality images and videos large pixels, large file size take longer in downloading onto requesting browsers, whereas low quality, lightweight graphics barely capture user attention despite their lower load times.
However, graphics intensive content is not always the deciding factor in driving conversions and sales.
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This is especially true for ecommerce websites that must contain fast-loading product images and videos describing the value of products, and not necessarily their visual beauty. Compatibility issues also affect multimedia and application performance for certain browsers and geographic locations. Take Google Chrome and Shockwave Flash as an example. The two rarely play nice to each other. Similarly, government restrictions can also prevent specific multimedia content from reaching local visitors.
Websites with non-functional multimedia content take excessive client-server communication cycles to reach requesting browsers, ultimately deteriorating website performance.
It is, however, up to website owners to ensure streamlined serviceability across all browser platforms, device form factors and geographic locations as government policies and browser compatibility potentially changes over time, and most often, unpredictability as well. Streamline content Fast loading and fully functional multimedia content is necessary for ecommerce merchants to keep hold of website visitors.
But when too many single-lines of code take space on the website back-end, web content assets and plugins with lengthy code end up competing for tiny memory spaces in short processing cycles.
As a result, the popular physics phenomenon of non-linearity kicks in, and each component performs unpredictably, usually consuming more processing cycles than expected. From the perspective of end users, excessive services are often unnecessary or at most, considered secondary to the actual content portrayed by the website.
Many websites host more than 80 assets images, plugins, add-ons and other multimedia contentand all of this content is not necessarily delivered to requesting browsers as per user preferences. Additional investments in developing media-rich websites ultimately backfire when the information actually requested to reach end-users is held by irrelevant sign-up forms, analytics code and other content adding unnecessary weight to the website.
Smartphones The competition to capture the attention of mobile users is even more intense due to slow loading mobile websites and lower visitor patience levels.Aggregation - Database Management System
And on average, 3 in 4 people will abandon a mobile website if it takes any longer than 5 seconds to load, whereas an average mobile takes even longer periods of seconds to load. Excessive delays in mobile page load time occur mostly when websites are not specifically optimized and designed to deliver high performance on a mobile device interface.
Even with dedicated smartphone-optimized pages, mobile users are not always redirected to the intended mobile-versions of desktop website pages requested from mobile browsers. Redirects are instructions that send users seeking one website URL to another one that supposedly contains the exact information requested by users.
Redirects are most effective for mobile users searching for desktop versions of website pages that must be mapped well to equivalent mobile versions in delivering the best mobile website experience. Doing so inaccurately keeps users from switching between unwanted website files until they reach the right one.
This causes unnecessary delays in loading the information actually sought by end-users. Bad redirects Website owners are eventually responsible for losing competitive advantages in the mobile space when the mobile web traffic is simply redirected toward irrelevant desktop website version, instead of delivering a speed-optimized mobile solution for mobile visitors.
Websites not speed-optimized for mobile devices suffer from common issues hampering mobile user experience. Issues such as faulty redirects, unplayable videos, bloated images and graphics, irrelevant cross-linking and unnecessary assets delivered to mobile visitors degrade website performance and ultimately drive bounce rates.
Only 10 percent of the waiting period is defined by the HTML response to browser requests, and the remaining 90 percent of the delay is caused in rendering pages, parsing HTML, executing code scripts and retrieving embedded assets.
Website performance overhaul with optimization tools and script tweaks can scrape off sizeable chunks from page load times, but perhaps not as effectively as developing a speed optimized website from scratch.
And the latter is more of a marketing strategy, a business decision and slight awareness in avoiding the most common mistakes that can potentially ruin online businesses by killing website performance. Web traffic and search engine ranking is primarily a vanity metric for website performance. Important as they are, neither is more indicative of online business success than sales figures and conversion rates.
Putting things into perspective, ecommerce websites with almost zero percent bounce rate, 15 percent conversion rates and 10, unique website visitors from low search engine rankings fare far better than high ranking sites enjoyingunique visits with only 0.
The debate of conversion rate optimization can carry on for encyclopedic lengths, and implementing business best-practices on Frankensteinish websites can take tons of investments with efforts of patient execution spanning across months before any significant conversion rate improvement is yielded.
Online businesses focusing on improving website performance experience immediate results in the form of higher conversion rates and sky-rocketing sales.
Page speed, in particular, fills the void in enhancing marketability by improving website user experience to keep impatient online customers engaged and satisfied. These statistics only describe how page speed impacts business success in the competitive cyberspace. The pursuit for speed optimized website begins with identifying critical front-end issues most apparent under standard website performance testing processes.
Before the exploration for page speed bumps begins, understanding the behavior of the most impactful website speed performance indicators helps to accurately identify performance loopholes in websites. Initial Page Speed Downloading tons of memory hogging website content within milliseconds of initiating browser requests is not entirely possible without a thorough revamp and speed optimization of slow websites. Concerning the therapeutic process, Ogrodniczuk, Piper, Joyce, and McCallum found that female clients who were randomly assigned to either interpretive or supporting therapy had better outcome in supportive therapy, which was less challenging and encouraged a more collaborative and trusting relationship.
More specifically, female clients preferred counsellors who were supportive when dealing with emotional issues, whereas on relationship issues, women tended to like a more directive approach, in which the counsellor advised them on what to do.
Thus, listening to female clients and the way that they construct relationships in therapy was a main goal of the study. The therapeutic relationship is a relationship that happens outside of the everyday social context of each person involved.
Therefore, the descriptions generated by the clients are usually overlooked. On the grounds of listening to the clients, aiming to study their lived experiences and exploring their point of view of the counselling relationship, the study was approached by using interpretative phenomenological analysis Smith, In this way, the focus is on exploring individual, subjective experiences and on understanding the patterns that form when clients share the ways that they relate to their counsellors.
A second theoretical approach that informed the present study was feminist research. Thus, the main goals of the present study were: Participants [ TOP ] The participants of the study were 27 counselling and psychotherapy female clients. The duration of the sessions was between 2 months and 5 years, with a prerequisite of at least 8 sessions.
The goal of this choice was to allow the participants to form and develop a therapeutic relationship that could be properly discussed and analysed Thompson, Seventeen of the clients visited a female counsellor and 10 a male one. The study had no restrictions concerning the issues discussed in therapy.
Some of the most prominent issues defined by the clients were anxiety and anxiety-related problems, depression, interpersonal relationships, self-awareness and specific events that needed sorting out. In terms of their occupation, 11 participants were employees of the private or the public sector, six were self-employed, five were university students and five were unemployed.
Thirteen of the participants were single, eight were married, two were engaged and four separated or divorced. Nine of them had children. Participants were recruited through an invitation letter that was sent to counselling services and counsellors and psychotherapists in private practice.
The letter invited participation in the study and the purpose of the study and the anonymous character of the research were fully explained. Interviews [ TOP ] The data for the present study was collected with the use of individual, semi-structured interviews. The interview question regarding the present study was the following: An informed consent letter explaining the goals of the study and its anonymous character was distributed and signed by all participants.
All the interviews were conducted by the first author of the article, while the digital records were transcribed verbatim according to Smith For the purpose of the present article, back translation was used for every extract included. While analysing the data, the first author repeatedly read the transcripts, made notes and then transformed the notes into specific themes, which were confirmed by the other two authors.
The themes were examined in relation to one another and grounded within the transcripts. After this circular process, the super-ordinate themes and the subthemes were produced. The criteria used, in order for the methodological rigour of the study to be determined, were the systematic consideration of the themes, investigator triangulation, and reflexivity.
The triangulation was carried out with the help of two independent researchers who analysed the data and produced similar results. Results [ TOP ] The three super-ordinate themes that originated from the data analysis were the following: Comparing the Therapeutic Relationship [ TOP ] This super-ordinate theme focused on the definition that 17 participants gave to the unique relationship with their counsellor. In their attempt to define this relationship, the participants did not engage with terms used in the literature but, maybe in loss of a structured definition, they compared the therapeutic relationship to other interpersonal relationships.
These comparisons were not part of an interview schedule but were generated by the participants themselves. The comparisons included similarities, differences or analogies that the participants found with friendship, family relationships or other professional relationships. Thus, the three subthemes that were produced addressed the comparison of the counselling relationship to friendship, to family relationships or to other professional relationships. Comparing the Therapeutic Relationship to Friendship [ TOP ] The most common comparison that 11 participants used in order to define the therapeutic relationship was that of friendship.
An example is that of Ioanna, who hesitantly proceeded to liken the relationship with her therapist to friendship: We discuss so naturally. For example how does it feel when you are with a friend of yours and you chat about your news, and the discourse is very natural, it has a very natural flow, without you pressuring yourself to say or not to say things?
Did you understand what I mean? Although Ioanna hesitated to name her therapist her friend, maybe because she was well aware of the boundaries that are drawn in the therapeutic context, she described a relationship that is like a friendship, where she felt comfortable to talk.
Another participant who seemed ambivalent about the definition of her relationship to her counsellor was Antonia. For Antonia, initially, there was a negotiation whether or not to characterize this relationship as friendship, but she ended up accepting this definition because of the equality and the comfort that she experienced: But you cannot name it friendship. I think it is friendship.
Although, you cannot open up yourself like this to a friend… But I would consider it friendship because we are equals, because we can comfortably discuss with each other. The reason why Antonia did not actually define her therapeutic relationship as friendship did not seem to be because of the boundaries, like in the experience of Ioanna, but because she could open up more freely to a counsellor than to her friends.
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Nevertheless, she accepted friendship as the closest definition. In the following examples, the participants used the comparison in order to offer an analogy between the two types of relating, while also noting the differences. For instance, Danai seemed to experience the therapeutic relationship as the best version of friendship. As she stated in the following extract: I can talk very comfortably.
Not friendly, not with that sense. This is something very freeing. Danai, like Antonia, talked about the best qualities of the therapeutic relationship in comparison to friendship, but instead of linking the two, she emphasized the differences.
In this contrast, the counselling relationship was the one that appeared to be more favoured. In the same vein, Kaiti contrasted the two kinds of relationship and found the therapeutic relationship to be better, although, similar to friendship: My relationship… I would say friendship. Something more than friendship. She is a person that I feel very close to, to whom I could say my inner truths and this is very important. For most people who are very busy with their problems it is very important to be able to discuss your inner truths with a stranger.
What is interesting in the above extract is that Kaiti simultaneously considered the therapeutic relationship to be better than friendship because of the closeness that she experienced, and also characterized her counsellor as a stranger.
Another example of the way that the counselling relationship is likened and contrasted to friendship was the experience of Aliki. She expressed that in this situation, she was the one who was the center of attention and her problems were the priority, whereas, in other friendships, her issues might be disregarded and the focus would soon be elsewhere: When you talk with your friend, you will sit down and talk about your problems and she will say: Then she will start talking about herself.
Here it is a little like an egotistical friendship [laughs]. This is the nature of this profession. The psychologist will not say that I have no reason to worry. Why did this happen? Thus, she certainly did not experience her counsellor as her friend: There are boundaries [in the relationship with the counsellor], which means that she is not your friend.
Almost all of the participants that attempted to define their relationship to their counsellor as a friendly one described characteristics such as closeness, equality, being able to talk easily, self-disclosure and being listened to and also the sense of an informal environment when it comes to sharing.
Comparing the Therapeutic Relationship to Family Relationships [ TOP ] Another way that participants illustrated the type of relationship that they experienced with their counsellor was by comparing the counselling relationship to family relationships. More specifically, for eight participants the counselling relationship was compared to a relationship with a parent or a sibling.
For example, Theano appeared to be saying that her counsellor provided the necessary support and acted like a person on whom she could lean on, like she would do with a father: I was feeling that he had a strong presence, where I could feel relaxed, where I could lean on to, where I could ask for his support.
Theano, here, seemed to talk about a gendered relationship, where her counsellor was being experienced in accordance to his gender. The fact that her counsellor was male dredged up feelings of comfort, emotional support and strength.
These were the characteristics that she associated with a father figure and could make her feel like a child.
Another participant who paralleled her counselling relationship to a parental one was Kleio. For Kleio, her therapist seemed to constitute the best version of a parental relationship. Therefore, she compared her relationship with her therapist to a father-daughter relationship, but also to a good father-daughter relationship. In her experience, her therapist was like a father who provided safety and unconditional acceptance and who reacted in a way a good father would. He is like a father, he supports me.
He [the therapist] is like a good father. Kleio appeared to experience her relationship with her counsellor in the same pattern as Theano. Thus, the counselling relationship was defined in comparison to a father-daughter relationship, where the parent provided support. However, Kleio did not distinguish between the genders, although she used some of the same qualities when describing this type of relating.
Another participant who seemed to liken the therapeutic relationship with family relationships was Stella. For Stella, her counsellor could resemble to both a mother and a sister: That is, she could advise me about something and at the same time I could trust her with anything, from the most significant to the most insignificant. When talking about a parental relationship with her counsellor, Stella seemed to be using the same pattern as Kleio and Theano; she described her counsellor as someone who could give her advice.
On the other hand, when she compared the counselling relationship to a sibling relationship, she talked about being able to talk more easily, a pattern which was prominent in the previous subtheme. From a phenomenological standpoint, the three experiences described above focused on the real counselling relationship, where the participants defined their relationship with their counsellor mostly as supportive and close. Stavroula on the other hand, appeared to be describing the counselling relationship from a framework of transference: I projected on him elements of motherhood, of fatherhood.
I felt that I had to be good for example. Like I had to prove to my therapist that I am good. He was like my daddy, who gave me his wisdom and I had to support that and to receive his approval.