Aldosterone and renin relationship help


aldosterone and renin relationship help

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a .. Interaction. Help · About Wikipedia · Community portal · Recent changes · Contact page. Relationships of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sodium balance to blood pressure regulation in chronic renal failure of polycystic kidney disease. The Relationship of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System . may help to elucidate the question, which of the sex hormones is mainly responsible.

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Further studies are needed to better establish therapeutic strategies that act on the blockade of mineralocorticoid receptor in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases related to the excess of aldosterone and the metabolic syndrome. Introduction Prevalence of hypertension and obesity is increasing around the world, and data from NHANES III show that hypertension increases parallel to a rising body mass index [ 1 ]. An increase in abdominal obesity, also when only moderate overweight exits or even if there is no overweight, plays a key role on cardiometabolic diseases [ 2 ].

This increase in abdominal obesity is associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders and with elevation of blood pressure levels.

Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System

On the contrary, a rising subcutaneous adiposity does not seem to be accompanied by any systemic complication of obesity [ 3 ]. Most studies link abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic disorders with the inflammatory status and oxidative stress that lead to the development of insulin resistance [ 45 ].

Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Aldosterone on Cardiometabolic Syndrome

Insulin resistance also plays a major role in the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus [ 6 ]. Moreover, hypertension usually occurs at the same time with other risk factors: Aldosterone may lead to cardiovascular damage through different mechanisms that are independent on its hemodynamic effects on blood pressure.

aldosterone and renin relationship help

Thus, many recent studies involve aldosterone in the pathogenesis of the cardiometabolic syndrome [ 7 ]; although this relationship is complex and it is not well established, there is some evidence that different factors could act on it: Angiotensin effects and Aldosterone function Renal hormone regulation schematic It is believed that angiotensin I may have some minor activity, but angiotensin II is the major bio-active product.

Angiotensin II has a variety of effects on the body: Throughout the body, angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor of arterioles. In the kidneys, angiotensin II constricts glomerular arterioles, having a greater effect on efferent arterioles than afferent.

Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Aldosterone on Cardiometabolic Syndrome

As with most other capillary beds in the body, the constriction of afferent arterioles increases the arteriolar resistance, raising systemic arterial blood pressure and decreasing the blood flow. However, the kidneys must continue to filter enough blood despite this drop in blood flow, necessitating mechanisms to keep glomerular blood pressure up.

To do this, angiotensin II constricts efferent arterioles, which forces blood to build up in the glomerulus, increasing glomerular pressure.

The glomerular filtration rate GFR is thus maintained, and blood filtration can continue despite lowered overall kidney blood flow. Because the filtration fraction has increased, there is less plasma fluid in the downstream peritubular capillaries. This in turn leads to a decreased hydrostatic pressure and increased oncotic pressure due to unfiltered plasma proteins in the peritubular capillaries. The effect of decreased hydrostatic pressure and increased oncotic pressure in the peritubular capillaries will facilitate increased reabsorption of tubular fluid.

Angiotensin II decreases medullary blood flow through the vasa recta.

aldosterone and renin relationship help

This decreases the washout of NaCl and urea in the kidney medullary space. Thus, higher concentrations of NaCl and urea in the medulla facilitate increased absorption of tubular fluid. Furthermore, increased reabsorption of fluid into the medulla will increase passive reabsorption of sodium along the thick ascending limb of the Loop of Henle. This will ultimately lead to increased sodium reabsorption. Angiotensin II stimulates the hypertrophy of renal tubule cells, leading to further sodium reabsorption.

In the adrenal cortexangiotensin II acts to cause the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the tubules e. This increases blood volume and, therefore, increases blood pressure. In exchange for the reabsorbing of sodium to blood, potassium is secreted into the tubules, becomes part of urine and is excreted.

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