Awareness of and relationship to other dancers in performance

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awareness of and relationship to other dancers in performance

a highly developed kinesthetic awareness (in order to know and control the position (Other kinds of dance, such as jazz or tap, are usually taught in conjunction with . The dancer's performance now became subject to the most rigorous. many other members of the Parisian audience, found the action disturbing theatrical performance dance artists invite to the consumption of unknown or . Dancer Tamara Rojo was aware of these issues when she expressed that . and audiences and if humiliation or pain arises in this relationship, then respect for. projection; focus; spatial awareness; facial expression; phrasing. musicality; sensitivity to other dancers; communication of choreographic intent, including ie relationship content, musicality and sensitivity to other dancers; opportunities for.

In the field of neuroaesthetics, the perception of artworks such as paintings was shown to involve activation of perceptual and affective brain systems Jacobsen et al.

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In addition, some recent investigations have suggested that action neural systems are engaged in aesthetic judgments of artworks e. Recent evidence gives support to these hypotheses. For instance, Leder et al. The case of dance seems to be very well suited to evaluate these theories insofar as the art object contains live bodily movements.

In fact, a study conducted by Calvo-Merino et al. They showed that high ratings were associated with a stronger engagement of action-related neural systems. This and other studies indicate that the aesthetic experience of dance involves sensorimotor processing arguably of the gesture underlying the artwork Calvo-Merino et al.

In addition, one could argue that the aesthetic experience of the spectator could be associated with explicit emotional responses. In fact, dance gestures and movements can be explicitly expressive and thus could evoke emotional responses in the public Atkinson et al.

However, in many cases in contemporary dance, the aesthetic experience can be derived neither from explicit emotional expressions nor the production of recognizable gestures, since the dance work can eschew both elements. In order to inform our research on spectating, we take into account studies in the field of humanities and performance, which by focusing on the uniqueness of each artistic proposal and the spectator attitude, examine the multiplicity and complexity of this experience at several dimensions: The studies presented here, and the larger research program which they are part of, are an attempt to build bridges between the humanities and the cognitive sciences.

The approach consists in taking into consideration both the aesthetic and phenomenological aspects of spectating when setting-up experimental protocols. We believe this kind of bi-directional bridge has the potential to enrich both quantitative research common to the cognitive sciences and qualitative research practiced in dance studies. While the phenomenological perspective allows for a more nuanced and rich modeling of the subjective experience, experimental data can help clarify some of the neurophysiological mechanisms at play.

Here, we investigated changes in the cognitive and physiological states of participants spectating a distinctive dance style, that of the French choreographer Myriam Gourfink. The choreographer Myriam Gourfink has developed a specific speed and quality of movement that make her style unique and recognizable beyond the specificities of each piece for internet examples see: Dancers can spend 8 min to cross 10 cm Lesauvage and Piettre, It is induced by a technique that changes brain and body states: According to the choreographer [it] is the breathing that entrains this slowing-down of movement Lesauvage and Piettre, The fundamental aspect of energy yoga is the generation of slow movements and controlled breathing Lesauvage and Piettre, During the energy yoga sessions and during the performance, dancers share their attention between the respiration, micro-movement and body sensations Lesauvage and Piettre, Every live performance is also preceded by a few hours of yoga practice that brings about the characteristic quality of presence and speed of movement.

One often experiences blindness to the progressive postural changes in the visual scene. In addition, some spectators report a strange experience of space and time just after the presentation and are surprised by the objective length of the performance that they often underestimate. One major effect of her choreography is an increased bodily self-consciousness and kinesthetic sensation. These studies are highly informed by the qualitative literature that shapes our hypothesis space and at the same time allow us to explore quantitatively relationships between different dimensions of the subjective experience and between subjective experience and intersubjective physiological factors.

Engagement in dance is associated with emotional competence in interplay with others

This implies a co-presence of bodies and a real time relationship between the experience of the spectators and the one of the performers. An emergent idea in cognitive neuroscience is that coordinated behavior between two or more persons is a fundamental aspect of human interaction Knoblich and Sebanz, The notion of entrainment has been borrowed from physics to indicate the phenomenon by which two rhythmic processes interact with each other so that they adjust themselves and eventually become rhythmically coupled like bearing the same phase; Clayton, This notion was extended beyond physics to include many natural and cultural phenomena that have a periodic nature.

Examples of such phenomena include the synchronous activity of neuronal groups, the synchronous social behavior in animals and cultural phenomena such as dance. Since humans coordinate their activities in a variety of events during daily life, this coordinated behavior has been thought to be important in social interactions, and has been said to promote cooperation van Baaren et al.

Coordinated motor responses seem to arise even in the absence of any explicit instructions to do so.

Dance - history, theory, benefits, dance teaching

They observed that people unintentionally synchronized, and that the strength of such coupling relied upon information that the participants have of each other.

Entrainment has been studied also in relation to musical action synchronization Clayton, as well as synchronization between two or more dancers performing a rhythmically structured movement see the current issue. Here, we propose to enlarge the notion of entrainment to incorporate a wider spectrum of phenomena, and include the dynamic coordination that happens in the absence of an explicit rhythmical structure, like in many forms of contemporary dance.

This may allow us to measure coordinated behavior that may not bear strict oscillatory features. We suggest that audience entrainment could be measured by assessing the coordination of physiological activities between performers and spectators at multiple levels: The respiratory rate is a signal of the autonomic nervous system, thought to echo emotional states and responses Boiten et al.

Autonomic signals such as the respiratory rate, and others such as cardiac responses, have also been studied in the context of real-time inter-subjective engagement. For instance, certain studies have assessed coordination of autonomic signals between pairs.

Respiratory and cardiac responses have been shown to be coordinated between romantic partners Helm et al.

awareness of and relationship to other dancers in performance

In addition, researchers have found, in a more natural setting, a co-variation of cardiac responses between participants and spectators in a collective ritual Konvalinka et al. More recently, other studies have investigated collective vs. In this experiment we analyze whether synchronous respiratory rates between spectators and performers were correlated with subjective reports in particular, those reflecting attention to respiration.

The experience of time has been thought by some investigators to be dependent on an internal clock mechanism or pacemaker Hoagland, In this model pulses are accumulated, stored in working memory, and then compared to a reference Gibbon et al. The estimation of time has been shown to be modulated by a complex ensemble of brain-body factors that include cognitive, emotional and physical states Wittmann and van Wassenhove, and by the characteristics of the stimulus we perceive Nather et al.

Attention and arousal have a decisive role in time perception. An increase of arousal induced by emotions like fear Grommet et al. These states are associated with an increase of attention particularly internalized and reduced arousal.

Interoceptive focus has been shown to increase time distortion in both senses: Studies show that temporal over-estimation can be induced by static pictures depicting distinct body postures Nather et al.

awareness of and relationship to other dancers in performance

According to aesthetic and phenomenological studies a major effect of this choreography on the spectator is an increased awareness of movement, millimeter per millimeter, a changed temporal awareness associated with an increased interoceptive focus, and an increased kinesthetic sensation Gioffredi, In this sense, studies in aesthetics guided our experimental work for the construction of a post hoc questionnaire.

This is not an official list, it is created for this webpage by the author. You can devise your own characteristics if you wish, or adapt this. Remember some or all of these might apply, in order for something to be considered a form of 'dance' or 'dancing': Movement of the body - typically rhythmic and coordinated or in some way following a pattern or method.

Usually, but not necessarily, music accompanies dancing. Dance is a way of communicating and expressing ideas and emotions, as well as a way of exercising and enjoying life. Dance is non-verbal, physical and empowering - it attracts interest and attention, and is an extension of human moods.

For many people, the urge to dance is an irresistible impulse, that starts at birth and lasts throughout life. Many people start instinctively foot tapping and moving to certain music. Dance is infectious and communal - it is a natural social lubricant, bond, and relationship builder.

Throughout human existence dance has been a main method by which men and women meet and discover each other, test compatibility, and date and mate. Dance is also an art form. Dance performance combines the skills of amateur or professional dancers, ballerinas and choreographers, etc.

Origins of the word dance. Origins of words offer information as to their meanings and history. Chambers Etymological Dictionary of word origins suggests that dance came into English from French aboutfirstly as dauncer, from Old French dancier, and before this either from Frankish dintjan like Middle Dutch deinsen, and densen, to shrink backor from Vulgar Latin deanteare, from Late Latin deante, meaning 'in front of', from de and ante.

Cassells etymological dictionary is certain that dance came into English from Old French dancer, to dance, thC, and which also became the modern French word 'danser' meaning to dance, and that these words came from Frankish dintjan, which is of uncertain origin.

Samuel Johnson's English dictionary - the first English dictionary for common words - says that dance is from French, danser, and dancar, Spanish, and thought by some to derive from tanza, in the 'Arabick' language meaning Arabic.

Interestingly the origins of the word dance via Latin through French became confused because there was a religious ban on dancing in the Middle Ages, which affected the evolution of the word. Whelan, WendyWendy Whelan, Many dance movements make strenuous and unnatural demands on the joints, muscles, and tendons, and it is easy to strain or damage them if the body is not properly maintained.

Some bodies are more suitable for training than others, and in the West many aspiring dancers undergo extensive medical scrutiny to ensure that they have no weaknesses or disabilities, such as a weak or crooked spine, that would make them unfit for dancing.

While ballet dancers rarely use the torso, African dancers and certain modern dancers have to be extraordinarily supple in the torso and pelvis in order to execute the ripples, twists, and percussive thrusts that their particular dances require. Indian classical dancers, while developing great strength and flexibility in the legs, must also achieve great control over the face and neck muscles and flexibility and control in the joints and muscles of the hands.

This is necessary to execute their elaborate mudrasconventional symbolic gestures, with accuracy and grace. Differences among dancers However rigorous and uniform training may be, each dancer always has a personal style of dancing.

Certain skills come more easily to some dancers than to others: The same choreography may also look completely different when executed by two different bodies. Thus, a dancer with very long limbs will make high leg extensions look exaggeratedly long while appearing slightly awkward in fast, intricate footwork. Another dancer may have a great deal of energy and speed but be unable to produce a sustained and beautiful line in held positions. Finally, dancers vary a great deal in the way they articulate and project movement.

Dance - history, theory, benefits, dance teaching

Some dancers move in a way that is tense, energetic, and even aggressive in its attack, while others appear soft and fluid. Some phrase their movements so that every detail is sharp and clear; others so that one element flows into another. Some move exactly in time with the phrasing of the music; others phrase their movement slightly independently of it.