House of Tudor | Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York, was the eldest child of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, and was born at Westminster. The first marriage that was arranged for her was with. Caxton Window with Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. When Warwick found out about Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, Warwick. Key facts about Elizabeth Woodville who was born October , including Elizabeth of York (wife of Henry VII) by her second marriage to Edward IV.
Elizabeth Woodville, The White Queen | British Biography
Given the youth of the heir to the throne, a regency would be needed. The two most obvious people to head that regency were Queen Elizabeth and Richard of Gloucester. Richard and the queen were openly hostile, however; indeed, there was very little public support for the queen.
Edward IV certainly made his own wishes known, appointing his brother Richard as Lord Protector on his deathbed. At the time of his his father's death, Edward V was in the company of his mother at Ludlow, so the queen's cause looked the brightest.
But Richard, acting with the decisiveness and courage which marked most of his life, forestalled the queen. He rode quickly to intercept the royal party before they could reach London, and on 29 April, took Edward into his own custody. He arrested the lords Rivers and Grey, who were later executed. The queen took sanctuary at Westminster with her daughters, and her second son. Within six weeks Richard gathered support for a move to declare the princes illegitimate and have himself named king.
He arrested those lords most likely to oppose such a move, and had Lord Hastings executed. He pressured the queen into giving Richard, Duke of York, into his care, and Richard joined his elder brother in the Tower of London. It is worth remembering that the Tower of London did not at that time have the reputation it was later to acquire; it was a royal residence, an armoury, a protected place in royal hands. It was not first and foremost a prison.
By placing the princes in the Tower of London, Richard was not, in theory, placing them in prison, or under arrest. Richard then had a tame priest, Dr. Shaw, preach a sermon at Paul's Cross, claiming that Edward IV had been precontracted in marriage to another woman before marrying Elizabeth Woodville. Based on this 'evidence' Richard called an assembly which in due course asked him to take the crown as the only legitimate heir of the House of York.
After a seemly show of reluctance Richard agreed and was crowned king. Were the princes illegitimate? Richard's claim to the throne was based on his assertion that the princes were illegitimate, because Edward had been betrothed before his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, the prince's mother. Given the customs of the time, a prior betrothal could have invalidated Edward's subsequent marriage, so any children of that union would be illegitimate. Richard would have found it easy to gather support against the queen, for she was very unpopular.
At first glance it would appear that this claim is a feeble attempt to legitimise Richard's own claim to the throne. However, it is possible that Richard's claim is based on the truth, though not through Edward's betrothal vows.
Medieval historian Professor Michael Jones has determined through court records that Edward's legal father, Richard, Duke of York, was over miles away from his mother, Lady Cecily, at the time when Edward must have been conceived. If true, this would mean that Edward IV was illegitimate, and had no claim to the throne.
The Princes in the Tower
Therefore his children, Edward and Richard, would have had no claim to the throne. In that case, the person with the best claim to the throne would be Richard, Duke of Gloucester, Edward's brother or half-brother if the tale of Edward's origins were true. Certainly, tales of Edward's illegitimacy circulated at the time; Louis XI of France is known to have believed that Edward's father was an English archer named Blaybourne.
The Princes disappear The princes were regularly seen playing on Tower Green, or taking the air within the walls, but then, around the beginning of June,they dropped out of sight. Rumours began to circulate, perhaps started by enemies of Richard III, that the princes had been murdered. Richard was well aware of these rumours, and it is worth noting that he did not seek to counter them by the obvious expedient of showing the world that the princes were still alive and well.
Were they already dead? We simply don't know. It may be that Richard believed that his nephews were truly illegitimate, and, as such, no longer of note. Rumblings of discontent became open rebellion. Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham launched an abortive revolt, but that came to nothing and the unfortunate lord was beheaded. He might have stood a better chance had his ally, Henry Tudor, Duke of Richmond, joined him as planned. Richmond was in exile in France, but his attempt to sail for England was thwarted by storms, and he arrived only to find that Buckingham's rebellion had come to nothing.
Richmond returned to France to bide his time. In the spring of Richard had his own son, Edward, confirmed as heir to the throne. Then the unhappy child died, and that was not the last of Richard's family to suffer a sudden and unexpected demise. Richard's queen, Anne Neville, died suddenly. Rumours flew that Richard had killed her himself, in order that he might marry his own niece, Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV, in order to further solidify his claim to the throne.
Public support for Richard weakened considerably at this latest tale, and his former allies flocked to the banner of Henry Tudor. The Battle of Bosworth Richard's enemies made the most of the disappearance of the princes to sway public support for their cause. Certainly the absence of the princes made Henry Tudor's attempts to gather support for his rebellion much easier. Henry landed in Wales and marched into England, gathering support as he did so.
Richard gathered his forces and rushed to meet him. The armies met at BosworthLeicestershire. In a furious battle that could have gone either way, Henry prevailed when key allies of Richard deserted him and went over to the Tudor standard.
House of Tudor - Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth was a commoner, a widow, and five years older than Edward. She was also his subject. To say that Edward upset the social applecart by marrying Elizabeth Woodville is an understatement of some magnitude. To be fair to the newlyweds, no matter who Edward had chosen to marry it would have upset a number of powerful people. Edward's place upon the throne was maintained through a precarious balancing act, carefully favouring important allies in exchange for their support.
He essentially tried to maintain stability by patronage, granting high office to the Nevilles in the north, Humphrey Stafford in the south west, and the Earl of Pembroke in south Wales. He relied on the support of a small circle of these nobles to maintain his authority. Marriage to Elizabeth was not at all part of the scenario envisaged by the nobility. The Earl of Warwick The Kingmaker in particular, was outraged.
He had been engaged in secret negotiations with France to marry Edward to a French princess.
When Edward's marriage was revealed, Warwick was personally embarrassed and politically undermined. His relationship with Edward soured and he eventually threw in his weight with Edward's enemies. Elizabeth was enormously resented by the established nobility at court.[TWQ/TWP] Safe And Sound - The Children of Edward IV & Elizabeth Wydeville
Her popularity was not helped by her ambitious relatives. Elizabeth had five brothers and seven unmarried sisters, not to mention her two previous children by John Grey. The Woodville family gained enormous influence and were granted large estates in Wales. Predictably, the more the Woodvilles gained influence, and the more Edward relied on his wife's family, the greater was the resentment against them, and against the queen.
Did she deserve this unpopularity? Did she, as her enemies suggestd, unduly use her influence with Edward to advance her own family?
Edward IV of England - Wikipedia
Well, of course she did, but so, too, did all the other noble families at court. It probably upset the nobility more that her influence lessened their own.
Edward's Death In Edward died, at the comparatively young age of Critical chroniclers of the day were quick to attribute his death to a dissolute life, and they may not have been wrong. But her husband's death left Elizabeth and her two sons in trouble. Edward's authority had rested in the support of a small group of influential nobles, but in the course of gaining their support he had managed to alienate almost everyone else. The stability of Edward's reign came tumbling down like a deck of cards in a high wind.
Richard of Gloucester, Edward's younger brother, seized the Prince of Wales, and threw the queen's brother, Lord Rivers, and son, Thomas Grey, into prison. The latter were soon executed as traitors. Elizabeth took refuge in Westminster Abbey with the young Duke of York, but she was then either threatened or cajoled into handing him over to Richard. The two princes were placed in the Tower of London, and Richard made his bid for the throne.
Richard based his bid on the claim that his brother Edward himself was illegitimate. This subject has been the matter of no little debate; it seems that nine months before Edward's birth his mother, Cecily Neville, and father, Richard of York, were in two different places while Richard was campaigning in France, giving rise to the rumour that his mother had taken a lover, and thus, Edward was a bastard.
Based on Richard's claims, Edward's children were declared illegitimate by an acquiescent Parliament, and Richard was crowned. While still in sanctuary she plotted to oust Richard and put her son on the throne. After it was suspected that the ' Princes in the Tower ' were dead, she threw her support behind an alliance with Richard's enemy, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond.