Leaving OFW children behind: Economic benefits vs social costs | News | GMA News Online
Effects of the OFW Phenomenon on Husband/Wife Relationship 1 Written by . relationships because all members experience the pain of family separation. Separation of families in migration is tied to implications about well-being of the people involved—mainly the children—and of the communities to which they. One of the most glaring but seldom recognized effects of working miles away from In exchange for having a viable source of income, most of our OFW's families have easy to observe that the physical separation of family members endangers marriages and parent-children relationships, thereby causing family instability.
The University of the Philippines Press, But the wife left-behind will now have to take a double role as being both the mother and the father at the same time. It is one thing when only the husbands left. It is quite another when the wife and mother is the one working abroad, thus leaving the family husband and children behind.
Many migrant mothers have become the breadwinner of the family. This has created emotional and psychological problems among the left-behind husbands. Secondly, the feminization of migration has also changed the caregiving role of the parents.
As the Aonuevos put it, When women started leaving for abroad to become the main providers for the family, the pressure to take on the second shift has shifted to the husbands left behind. With the women absent from their lives, men now have to take over household tasks and familial duties like taking care of the children. Doing the second shift is a dilemma that most husbands have to contend with, because it is deemed feminine in this country.
Scalabrini Migration Center, Unskilled Female Migration and the Filipino Family. Pingol explained that traditionally, as head of the family, husbands are expected to be providers and role models for their children, particularly their sons.
In his research with the left-behind husbands entitled Heroes at Home? Asis, Shirlena Huang, and Brenda S. They themselves admit their diminished sense of self-worth as in- laws and other men look down on them. The problem is that not all husbands respond this way. All members of Filipino transnational families experience psychological and emotional problems that affect their relationships because all members experience the pain of family separation.
Emotional and Psychological Effects of Migration on Both Parents and Children Overseas employment has tremendous effects on the emotional and psychological wellbeing of the migrant parents. First of all, the decision to sacrifice family proximity for economic security affects not just the left-behind children but also the mover. For a migrant parent, deciding to work abroad is not an easy decision to make.
There are so many factors to consider. According to Elspeth Graham and Lucy P. Because of this, both the OSPs and the family left behind experience psychological and emotional problems in their relationships. Secondly, migrant parents usually feel anxious and guilty for leaving their families behind. They always think about their family situation. This emotional and psychological burden that they carry every day creates considerable stress and strain.
Many TV news stories are seen by left-behind family members about the horrible situations of some OFWs in parts of the Middle East; it is natural for children to worry about their absent parent. Another emotional and psychological effect on children is the feeling of insecurity when parents are thousands of kilometers away or are in the other side of the globe. The writer believes that the financial security seems to be of less value as compared to the psychological and emotional security that children feel when both parents are with them all the time.
Shrestha, and Yasmina G. They found that the longer the father is away from home which means less frequency of visits to the familythe more the bond between him and his children is broken. The foundation of their relationship is weakened. Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 13, no.
What they want is for their mother to come home to be with them. Some children, however, continually resent their mothers for abandoning them and have become indifferent towards them.
They do not care whether their parents come home or not. They base these on the few occasions when their mothers came home and all they got were scolding and nagging. Experiences of Children Left-Behind in the Philippines. Graham and Jordan said, We found no evidence of poorer psychological well-being among Filipino children in transnational households compared to children in nonmigrant households. Parrenas presented three main forms of care expected in parenting to ensure the reproduction of family.
Leaving OFW children behind: Economic benefits vs social costs
These are the following: Migrant parents struggle with balancing between the material care, often the main reason for migration, and providing the moral and emotional care of their left-behind children. As stated earlier, when the fathers migrate the children are usually attended to by the mother 52 who generally does a good job caring for and nurturing the children.
Ateneo de Manila Press,But research shows that not all left- behind fathers are responsible housebands especially in the care-giving aspect. Another study undertaken by Asis, Huang and Yeoh When the Light of the Home is Abroad revealed that left-behind husbands rarely become full-time caregivers of children. Graziano Battistella and Maruja M. Proxy Caretakers The availability of the proxy caretakers does help in some ways. They take care of the children, manage the household and make sure that the monthly remittances are used properly.
In these studies, the pain of separation is clearly conveyed by informants, but whether there are measurable effects on the psychological well-being of children, or parents, is not addressed. Contexts and Concepts The literature focusing on immigrant groups in host countries tends to be exploratory in nature and limited in scope because of a lack of adequate data. Most studies adopt the conceptual framework of attachment theory, predicting poor emotional outcomes for those who experience losses or disruptions in primary attachment relationships Ainsworth et al.
Critiques within this literature provide support for two important observations about parent—child separation during serial migration. Psychological outcomes may be affected by sociocultural contexts in countries of origin, especially where local social norms favoring extended-family involvement in childrearing challenge models of attachment devised in Euro-American settings Bernhard et al.
Second, negative outcomes for the psychological well-being of separated children may vary across different stages in the migration process and over an individual's life course. A limitation of immigrant studies in host countries is that they do not examine child mental health during separation. A reasonable assumption is that retrospective recall after children have experienced the stresses of reunion, including adjustment to a new culture and perhaps separation from a substitute caregiver Smith et al.
A third observation, well recognized in the migration literature, concerns diversity in the migration process itself. The underlying context in studies conducted among immigrant groups in North America or Europe is the process of serial migration and family reunification in the host country. Most left-behind children in the region are not presented with the promise, or threat, of a new life in a foreign land and do not therefore face the same disruptions and losses experienced by immigrant children in Europe or North America.
Whether and in what ways differences in the anticipated location of family reunification influence a child's experience of transnational family arrangements is unknown. Nevertheless, insofar as stability and familiarity during childhood are protective for psychological health, these differences may be significant.
Researchers need to develop interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks that link diversity in migration contexts to culturally sensitive understanding of child—parent separation. The Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia The prevailing experience of separation from a migrant parent in Southeast Asia is one in which left-behind children expect their absent mother or father to rejoin the family in the country of origin.
Often the length of the period of absence is uncertain, as migrants renew short-term typically 2-year contracts, perhaps several times, according to family circumstances.
Literature Review on the OFW Family Dysfunctions | Gerardo "Boyet" Lisbe, Jr - 572233.info
Governments in the region promote the temporary out-migration of workers through agreements with foreign governments and recruitment agencies, and in many localities a culture of migration encourages new generations to seek employment abroad. As Asis notes, in the Philippines wanting to work abroad has become a national obsession. Who goes, where they go, and how long they remain away is thus influenced by multiple factors.
The feminization of transnational labor migration over the past decade has seen the out-migration of more mothers who leave young children behind. This has become a common occurrence in some countries, but not all. In the Philippines and Indonesia, for example, women outnumber men among documented overseas workers, and many are mothers, whereas in Thailand the independent out-migration of married women and mothers is a much rarer event.
The absence of fathers is understood differently. Gender ideologies are equally influential in promoting public anxieties about the effects of separation on Filipino children. The aim of this paper is to extend understanding of the psychological well-being of children in Southeast Asia by investigating whether children in transnational households are more likely to suffer psychological distress than their peers in nonmigrant households.
Two hypotheses suggested by the literature on parental absence in the context of transnational labor migration are tested: Children living in transnational households have poorer psychological well-being as measured by presence of abnormal emotional symptoms and conduct problems compared to children living with both parents. Children of migrant mothers have poorer psychological well-being than children of migrant fathers, when compared to children living with both parents.
Data for each country were analyzed separately because it was anticipated that relationships would vary across different cultural and political settings. Not only were the study samples drawn from different language groups, but the national policy context, which influences the size and composition of transnational migration flows, also varies.
Separate analyses for the four study countries allowed a focus on the characteristics of individuals and households within a comparative framework, whereas primary data collection facilitated the comparability of measures. The CHAMPSEA survey employed a three-stage flexible quota sampling strategy to collect information on about 1, target children and their households in each study country—Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.The impact of divorce on children: Tamara D. Afifi at TEDxUCSB
General population sampling was inappropriate in the context of this study, especially given the geographical clustering of high out-migration communities. Detailed protocols were developed such that any future replication should produce a sample equivalent in all its major characteristics to the CHAMPSEA sample. Stage 1 identified two provinces in each country with rates of international out-migration higher than the national average. Using local expert knowledge, Stage 2 first identified smaller administrative areas, then local communities villages in Indonesia and Thailand, barangay in the Philippines, and communes in Vietnamselecting those with the highest levels of international out-migration as potential study sites.
An additional criterion of diversity either long-established versus more recent out-migration or rural versus more urbanized communities for the Philippines, where migration sites were all long established governed the final site selection. Stage 3 involved community-based screening surveys to identify and select eligible households and target children. For a household to be eligible for the study, it had to include a child in one of two age groups 3, 4, and 5 years or 9, 10, and 11 years and fulfill certain criteria in relation to parental migrant status.
The two age groups of pre-school children and children in middle childhood were chosen to focus available resources and ensure adequate observations in each group to support a range of analyses. The sample excluded single-parent households. Qualifying households were those in which either a both parents had been usually resident at the same address as the target child for a period of at least 6 months prior to interview or b one or both parents had been working overseas for a continuous period of at least 6 months prior to interview and neither parent was an internal migrant.
As the aim was to oversample transnational households in order to fulfill the study's objectives, quotas specified that at least half of the households selected should belong to the second category, with a balance, where appropriate, between migrant father households and migrant mother households.
Screening proceeded from more than one location in each community to avoid spatial clustering biases, and quotas were filled systematically. Only one target child was identified in each household, and quotas ensured approximately equal numbers of girls and boys and young and older children.
If more than one child was eligible, supervisors were instructed to randomly select one of the children and assign this child for recruitment to the interviewer.
For each province, eight quotas defined by household migration status, child age, and child gender were then filled systematically according to which cell in the sampling matrix was most under quota. As each cell began to fill up, field workers encountered a few households where two children of the same age and gender both qualified for the same sub-quota. In this instance, a child who was available and amenable was recruited, which may have biased the sample slightly.
Across the four countries, however, the number of households with same gender—age eligibility was low 6. Qualifying households agreeing to participate were recruited to the study, and screening proceeded until all specified quotas had been filled.
Though the samples are not nationally representative, they are of sufficient size to conduct comparative analyses. For ease of reporting, the country name is used here when referring to the country samples.