What is the doctrine of ethos
The Ancient Greek doctrine of ethos attributed ethical powers to music and claimed that . Their number theory, which was explained in a . thought important. We know about Greek musical thought through two kinds of writings: Philosophical doctrines that describe music's place in the cosmos, its effects, and its his followers recognized the numerical relationships that underlay musical intervals-e.g., Greek writers believed that music could affect ethos, one's ethical character. Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence . Pittman writes, " Unfortunately, in the history of race relations in America, black Americans' ethos.
Instruments and Their Uses Evidence of Greek instruments survives in writings, archaeological remains, and hundreds of images on pots. Aulos see HWM Figure 1. Pitch could be changed by position in the mouth, air pressure, and fingering. Images show the two pipes being fingered the same, but they could produce octaves, parallel fifths or fourths, drone, and unisons.
The aulos was used in the worship of Dionysus. Dionysus was the god of fertility and wine, hence the drinking scene in HWM Figure 1. The aulos accompanied or alternated with choruses in the great tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides that were written for Dionysian festivals.
Doctrine of the affections | music | 572233.info
The lyre see HWM Figure 1. The player held the instrument in front, supporting it on the hip and from a strap around the left wrist. Both hands were free to touch the strings. The right hand strummed the strings.Derek Thomas: Before Light, Darkness
The fingers of the left hand touched the strings, perhaps to dampen them or to create harmonics. The lyre was associated with Apollo, god of light, prophecy, learning, and the arts especially music and poetry.
Both men and women played the lyre. Learning to play the lyre was a core element of education in Athens. The lyre was used to accompany dancing, singing, weddings, and the recitation of epic poetry such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.
The lyre was also played for recreation. The kithara was a large lyre. Contests and music festivals became popular after the fifth century B. An account of a musical competition in B. Famous artists performed for large crowds, gave concert tours, and demanded high fees from wealthy patrons.
Women were excluded from competition but could perform recitals, often to critical acclaim. Other than the virtuoso soloists, the majority of professional performers were slaves or servants. Greek Musical Thought We know about Greek musical thought through two kinds of writings: Philosophical doctrines that describe music's place in the cosmos, its effects, and its proper uses in society Systematic descriptions of the materials of music music theory Music in Greek mythology Gods and demigods were musical practitioners.
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Performance of music Music as a performing art was called melos the root of the word melody. Music was monophonic, consisting of one melodic line. There was no concept of harmony or counterpoint. Instruments embellished the melody while a soloist or chorus sang the original version, creating heterophony. Music and poetry were nearly synonymous.
There was no word for artful speech without music. Many Greek words for poetic types are musical terms-e. Music and number Pythagoras and his followers recognized the numerical relationships that underlay musical intervals-e.
Harmonia was the concept of an orderly whole divisible by parts. The term applied to the order of the universe. Music was allied to astronomy through the notion of harmonia. Mathematical laws were the underpinnings of musical intervals and the movements of heavenly bodies alike. From Plato's time until the beginning of modern astronomy, philosophers believed in a "harmony of the spheres," unheard music created by the movement of planets and other heavenly bodies.
Music and ethos Greek writers believed that music could affect ethos, one's ethical character. Music's mathematical laws permeated the visible and invisible world, including the human soul. The parts of the human soul could be restored to a healthy balance harmony by the correct type of music.
Doctrine of the affections
The Mixolydian, Dorian, and Phrygian melodies combinations of mode, melodic turns, and general style each had specific effects on the listener. Aristotle argued that music should be part of education because of its power to influence a person's soul. The theory of imitation holds that a person will imitate the ethos of the music they hear.
Aristotle admits that music is enjoyable see last sentence of HWM Source Reading, page 16 and enjoyment is acceptable when part of education and ethos.
He discourages high-born citizens from training to become professionals or entering in competitions because performing for pleasure alone is menial and vulgar.
Plato's Republic urges balance between gymnastics and music, and only certain types of music, in education. The Dorian and Phrygian harmoniai fostered the virtues of temperance and courage. Music should not have complex scales or mixed genres, rhythms or instruments. Changes in musical conventions could lead to lawlessness in art and anarchy in society.
Plato's uses for music are more restrictive than Aristotle's. Distinguishes between continuous movement of voice and diastematic intervallic movement Defines note, interval, and scale Intervals defined abstractly versus Babylonian definition based on specific strings of the lyre or harp Tetrachord theory Tetrachord: The genera were an attempt to explain actual musical practices. Aristoxenus said the diatonic was the oldest genera; the enharmonic, the most difficult to hear.
Each of the four tetrachords was named. Species the ways that perfect consonances could be divided Cleonides noted that the perfect fourth, fifth, and octave could be subdivided in a limited number of ways in the diatonic genus.
The perfect fourth could be divided three ways see HWM Example 1. With this in mind, Oddo coins the term intertextual ethos, the notion that a public figure's "ethos is constituted within and across a range of mass media voices" In "Black Women Writers and the Trouble with Ethos", scholar Coretta Pittman notes that race has been generally absent from theories of ethos construction, and that this concept is troubling for black women.
Pittman writes, "Unfortunately, in the history of race relations in America, black Americans' ethos ranks low among other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. More often than not, their moral characters have been associated with a criminalized and sexualized ethos in visual and print culture" These include the single unchanging scene, necessary use of the chorus, small number of characters limiting interaction, large outdoor theatres, and the use of masks, which all influenced characters to be more formal and simple.
One of these is the fact that tragedy characters were nearly always mythical characters. This limited the character, as well as the plot, to the already well-known myth from which the material of the play was taken. The other characteristic is the relatively short length of most Greek plays. To support this, he points out the example of Antigone who, even though she strongly defies Creon in the beginning of the play, begins to doubt her cause and plead for mercy as she is led to her execution.
Garton discusses, is the fact that either because of contradictory action or incomplete description, the character cannot be viewed as an individual, or the reader is left confused about the character. This would mean that most of the information about the character centers around one main quality or viewpoint.
Examples of this might be the Eumenides as vengeance, or Clytemnestra as symbolizing ancestral curse. This idea is maintained by the theory that the play is meant to affect the viewer or reader scene by scene, with attention being only focused on the section at hand.
This point of view also holds that the different figures in a play are only characterised by the situation surrounding them, and only enough so that their actions can be understood. The first is an abundant variety of types of characters in Greek tragedy. His second observation is that the reader or viewer's need for characters to display a unified identity that is similar to human nature is usually fulfilled.
Thirdly, characters in tragedies include incongruities and idiosyncrasies. He explains that action normally determines the major means of characterisation. Another principle he states is the importance of these three components' effect on each other; the important repercussion of this being character's impact on action.
He does this by discussing Aristotle's statements about plot and character in his Poetics: Murray maintains that Aristotle did not mean that complicated plot should hold the highest place in a tragedy play. This is because the plot was, more often than not, simple and therefore not a major point of tragic interest. Murray conjectures that people today do not accept Aristotle's statement about character and plot because to modern people, the most memorable things about tragedy plays are often the characters.
June Learn how and when to remove this template message Ethos, or character, also appears in the visual art of famous or mythological ancient Greek events in murals, on pottery, and sculpture, referred to generally as pictorial narrative. Aristotle even praised the ancient Greek painter Polygnotos because his paintings included characterization.
The way in which the subject and his actions are portrayed in visual art can convey the subject's ethical character and through this the work's overall theme, just as effectively as poetry or drama can.
Stansbury-O'Donnell states that pictorial narratives often had ethos as its focus, and was therefore concerned with showing the character's moral choices. Castriota also explains that according to Aristotle, "[t]he activity of these artists is to be judged worthy and useful above all because exposure of their work is beneficial to the polis ".
In order to portray the character's choice, the pictorial narrative often shows an earlier scene than when the action was committed. Stansbury-O'Donnell gives an example of this in the form of a picture by the ancient Greek artist Exekia which shows the Greek hero Ajax planting his sword in the ground in preparation to commit suicide, instead of the actual suicide scene.
Additionally, Castriota explains that ancient Greek art expresses the idea that character was the major factor influencing the outcome of the Greeks' conflicts against their enemies.