Nigeria, which has long struggled with governance issues and poverty, is in need of a and opportunities of the Obama Era, Nigerian leaders in government, business, conflict; fostering sustained economic growth; and combating global threats. .. Such an exercise can rejuvenate US-Nigerian relations and provide the. Though each government has had distinct relations with business and . developmental states positively alter market incentive structures, manage conflicts, reduce .. and West African nationals, especially Nigerians without resident permits. The current urgent need due to globalization, the end of the cold war, the The relationship between government and business is complex, with both positive.
Because matters were usually left in the hands of the minister and his officials, foreign policy positions could change radically from one minister to another, depending on the minister's orientation.
In addition to the minister's immediate staff, there was a small foreign policy elite comprising other top government officials, interest group leaders, academicians, top military officers, religious leaders, and journalists.
In a conference--to which every stratum of this elite was invited--was held to review Nigeria's foreign policy and recommend broad policy frameworks for the s and beyond. Several factors conditioned Nigeria's foreign policy positions. First, the ethnic and religious mix of the country required cautious positions on some issues, such as policy toward Israel.
Nigeria found it difficult to restore diplomatic ties with Israel and had not done so as of because of Muslim opposition and sympathy with the rest of the Arab Muslim world. Second, Nigeria's legacy as an ex-British colony, combined with its energy-producing role in the global economy, predisposed Nigeria to be pro-Western on most issues despite the desire to maintain a nonaligned status to avoid neocolonialism.
In this pro-Western posture was reinforced by Nigeria's "economic diplomacy," which involved negotiating trade concessions, attracting foreign investors, and rescheduling debt repayment to Western creditors. Third, the country's membership in and commitment to several international organizations, such as the United Nations and bodies mentioned earlier, also affected foreign policy positions.
Fourth, and most important, as the most populous country in Africa and the entire black world, Nigeria perceived itself as the "giant" of Africa and the potential leader of the black race. Thus, Nigerian external relations have emphasized African issues, which have become the avowed cornerstone of foreign policy.
These factors have caused certain issues to dominate Nigerian foreign policy across various governments, but each government has had distinctive priorities and style. During the s and early s, foreign policy aimed at proper behavior in the international system, and British authorities played a major role in Nigerian foreign relations.
Consequently, the Balewa government stressed world peace, respected sovereign equality, and maintained nonalignment based on friendship with any country that took a reciprocal position. After the fall of the First Republic, critics asserted that the government had been too proWestern and not strong enough on decolonization or integration, and that the low profile had been embarrassing. Nonetheless, Gowon continued to keep a low profile by operating within the consensus of the OAU and by following routes of quiet diplomacy.
The civil war marked a distinct break in Nigerian foreign policy. The actions of various countries and international bodies during the war increased awareness of the alignments within Africa and appreciation of the positive role that the OAU could play in African affairs.
Whereas white-dominated African countries had supported Biafra, the OAU sided with the federation by voting for unity. The OAU stance proved helpful for Nigerian diplomacy.
Nigeria first turned to the Soviet Union for support after the West refused to provide arms to the federation, and after the war, a less pro-Western stance was maintained.
Foreign relations of Nigeria
At the same time, Africa remained Nigeria's top priority. In the mid- to late s, attention focused on the liberation of southern Africa, on the integration of ECOWAS, and on the need for complete economic independence throughout Africa.
These goals were included in the constitution: Relations with Neighboring States Nigeria had cordial relations with all its neighbors--Benin, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea--as well as with other countries in the West African subregion, with most of which it had bilateral agreements. There had been occasional border disputes with Chad and Cameroon, and military action against these neighbors was contemplated by the civilian government in and Another problem arose in the early s, when Nigeria decided to expel many illegal immigrants, mainly Ghanaians, but this dispute also was resolved amicably.
The guiding principle of Nigeria's regional foreign policy was that of good neighborliness and friendship. Nigeria also tried to make its neighbors "safe" friends, partly to reenforce boundary claims and protect human rights of Nigerian citizens who were migrantworkers and partly to stabilize relations between the immediate neighboring countries.
For example, since it has established a strong presence in Equatorial Guinea. To pursue the economic interests through of foreign relations within West Africa, Nigeria championed the formation of ECOWAS and, in spite of competing allegiances to rival organizations within the subcontinent, continued to support the organization's objectives.
Relations with the Rest of Africa The prevailing perception in Nigeria's foreign policy was that, as predominant the African leader, it should play a bigbrother role in relations with African states. Nigeria was a founding member of the OAU and often channeled major policy initiatives through that organization. Nigeria's primary African commitment was to liberate the continent from the last vestiges of colonialism and to eradicate apartheid in South Africa.
Promoting liberation had grown from a weak and conservative stance during the s to an increasingly firm push after the civil war. Nigeria had played a role in the independence of Zimbabwe and in the late s was active in assisting Nambibia to achieve independence of Namibia. The country also contributed financially to liberation movements in South Africa and to the front line states of Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe, which were constantly harassed by South Africa.
Although Nigeria's armed forces were among the largest in black Africa in the early s, sizable military might has rarely been used in foreign policy. The army participated in peacekeeping forces, either alone or through the OAU and contributed personnel to United Nations peacekeeping missions.
Additional forces were sent in late September under a Nigerian field commander, General Doganyaro. Threats to fight for southern African liberation were made but not acted on, but Nigeria did give military and financial aid to the African National Congress for its efforts against the apartheid regime in South Africa and provided military equipments to Mozambique to help its struggle South African-backed guerrillas.
In addition, Nigeria gave aid and technical assistance to several African states, often through the African Development Bank of which it was a major benefactor.
Nigeria - FOREIGN RELATIONS
Under it, young Nigerian professionals served in other African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries where their expertise was needed. See Chad—Nigeria relations Nigeria's economic austerity campaign produced strains with neighbouring states, including Chad.
Nigeria expelled several hundred thousand foreign workers, mostly from its oil industry, which faced drastic cuts as a result of declining world oil prices.
At least 30, of those expelled were Chadians. Despite these strains, however, Nigerians had assisted in the halting process of achieving stability in Chad, and both nations reaffirmed their intention to maintain close ties. Chad has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate in Maiduguri.
Nigeria has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Foreign relations of Nigeria - Wikipedia
Central African Republic has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Bangui. Nigeria has an embassy in Abidjan. DR Congo has an embassy in Abuja.Nigeria's civil war explained - BBC News
Nigeria has an embassy in Kinshasa. Egypt has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos. Nigeria has an embassy in Cairo. Ethiopia has an embassy in Abuja.
Nigeria has an embassy in Addis Ababa. Equatorial Guinea has an embassy in Abuja and consulates in Calabar and Lagos. Nigeria has an embassy in Malabo and a consulate in Bata. Gabon has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Libreville. See Ghana—Nigeria relations Ghana Nigerian relations have been both bitter and sweet. In numerous Nigerians were deported from Ghana. Relations in the s were good. In protest, Nigeria refused to continue much-needed oil supplies to Ghana.