Francis II, the Dauphin of France - Mary Queen of Scots
At the time of their marriage in , when she was fifteen and he was twelve, Did Mary, Queen of Scots spend any time with her baby son James before she. On the 8th of February , Mary Queen of Scots, the only surviving in Scotland and the aggravation of Scotland's relations with England made the Scots turn to France, their old ally. King Henry II of France offered to unite France and Scotland by . The mystery of the poem “O Death, Rock Me Asleep”. The poet of whom I speak is Marie Stuart, a woman we know as the .. that began with her second marriage to Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
Writers like Spenser, Marlowe, and Shakespeare were popular at this time. Saoirse Ronan plays Mary left and Margot Robbie plays Elizabeth rightwho was known to use a mixture of lead and vinegar as makeup. The True Life of Mary Stuart. Award-winning historian Antonia Fraser has also written a biography of her called Mary Queen of Scots. Because the two queens are often viewed as rivals, there are also several books about their relationship. Elizabeth was Protestant and Mary was Catholic, which was the source of much friction between the two of them as well as their two countries.
The Life of Elizabeth I is a portrait of the Queen, diving into the familiar stories about her, like why she was called the Virgin Queen and how she rode out war and religious unrest. Novelist Margaret George, known for her extensive research, has written fiction about both queens.
And of course, Philippa Gregory has a book about Mary and Elizabeth. Unfortunately, as demonstrated below, those features are hard to appreciate when translated from their original French into modern English. Perhaps we tend to make light of her achievements not because of what Marie Stuart was, but because of what she definitely was not—for she was not an astute politician.
Mary, Queen of Scots - Wikipedia
And while her poetry is technically competent, she was not always circumspect in determining what themes to express and which thoughts to keep to herself. In the end, it was what she put to paper that sent her to the scaffold. I offer some samples of her work to perhaps give a glimpse of the woman who was Marie Stuart, Queen of Scots, a woman who is in some respects as enigmatic her cousin Elisabeth. While students at the royal nursery at Saint Germain en Laye were expected to do daily exercises in penmanship and verbal expression, usually in the form of letters which were rarely sent, we see early works of both Marie Stuart and Elizabeth Tudor written in prayer books, Psalters and the like.
Robin Bell translates it thus: Another translation of the same work appears in the excellent book, Royal Poetrie, Monarchic Verse and the Political Imaginary of Earl Modern England by Peter Herman, discussed below, and while the translations are similar, there is a shift of emphasis that exposes the difficulty in translating poetry, especially that written in a language as idiomatic as French.
Whether or not he is correct is a matter of conjecture. No crooked leg, no bleared eye, No part deformed out of kind, No yet so ugly half can be As is the inward suspicious mind. She wrote her inscription when she presented it to a servant or lady-in-waiting as a memento.Mary, Queen of Scots Biography 2018,Childhood,Personal Life,Career
Elizabeth signs her little quatrain as "Your loving Mistress, Elizabeth" making the inscription very personal. Note that she identified herself first by her position as queen Reine and only then by name. In Herman's interpretation, the Queen of Scots asserts the power of her position by phrasing her inscription as an order and signing it as queen while Elizabeth is comfortable relying on the thought expressed in her revealing anecdote.
Her sentiment, not her signature, is the message she wishes to leave in the book. Perhaps this is a clue that Elizabeth Tudor was self-reliant but Marie Stuart was not. It is also indicative of someone who had been queen since six days old as opposed to a girl who had been a princess only to become the bastardized Lady Elizabeth at age three.
The Queen of Scots wrote two of her most widely read poems in when she was Dowager Queen of France, mourning the death of her adolescent husband Francois II. They tend to be long and doleful. Here is an excerpt from one of two odes written on his death. I shall cease my song now My sad lament shall end Whose burden aye shall show True love can not pretend And, though we are apart Grows no less in my heart.
Marie and Francois had been informally betrothed when she was five and he was four. He was an object of ridicule and pity. He had a sallow complexion, distorted posture and a constantly runny nose.
Marie, on the other hand was very tall and, by the time of their wedding, was nearly six feet in height. Her ivory complexion and striking coloring were legendary. She was a notable beauty long before she was a bride. They were a physical mismatch, but in spite of it, they were soul mates. Because of her position as an anointed queen, Marie took precedence over the Valois princesses Elisabeth and Claud and later, Margot, and on state occasions, she sometimes took precedence over Francois, since she was an anointed regnant queen and he remained the heir apparent until his father was mortally wounded in a tournament in At the time she was fully aware it was the last card to be played in the marriage game.
I grieve and dare not show my discontent, I love and yet am forced to seem to hate, I do, yet dare not say I ever meant, I seem stark mute but inwardly to prate. I am and not, I freeze and yet am burned. Since from myself another self I turned. In the first stanza of the above poem, his translation, again differing slightly from that of Robin Bell, Herman has Marie recognizing that her best years i.
This is the vision I endeavored to portray in my sketch from The First Marie and the Queen of Scots, below illustrating the scene in which Marie Stuart is said to have looked wistfully back at the coast of France, calling out, "Adieu, Dear France, Adieu.
I fear that I shall never look upon you again. By way of contrast, Herman's version is different in tone, especially in the tense used on the last line --In Herman's version, the best years are fading with the last views of the French coastline and the loss is suffered in the present. It is a subtle but poignant difference. In my sweet and sad song of most lamenting tone I look deeply at my incomparable loss and in bitter sighs I pass my best years. Unfortunately one of Marie Stuart's early pieces written shortly after her decision to assume personal rule of Scotland.
It survives in the form of two differing translations.
The poem is addressed to Elizabeth. It is what we would call a gift enclosure card, and the gift, like the subject of the poem, is a diamond ring. In it, the diamond is speaking.
Its giver of the gift is not subservient to the recipient, although obviously courting favor. It is commonly entitled, The Diamond Speaks. Here is an interesting excerpt from The Diamond Speaks. Note how artfully Marie places sentiments that might be presumptuous if attributed to her as coming from the diamond!
The good will, if there ever was any, did not last long. Most of the communications between the queens after Marie Stuart arrived in Scotland as a widow were couched in diplomatic prose or in messages passed from the lips of envoys who often came bearing gifts. Both queens toyed with the image of an enduring sisterhood, but eventually Elizabeth struck back. After Marie fled to England inwhat had been a nagging annoyance became a materialized threat.
Marie became the reluctant champion of their cause and never fully rehabilitated herself in Elizabeth's eyes. The dread of future foes exiles my present joy, And wit me warns to shun such snares as threaten mine annoy. But clouds of toys untried do cloak aspiring minds, Which turn to rain of late repent by course of changed winds.
The top of hope supposed the root of ruth will be, And fruitless all their graffed guiles, as shortly ye shall see. Those dazzled eyes with pride, which great ambition blinds, Shall be unsealed by worthy wights whose foresight falsehood finds. The Daughter of Debate, that eke discord doth sow, Shall reap no gain where former rule hath taught still peace to grow.
Our rusty sword with rest shall first his edge employ, To poll their tops that seeks such change and gape for joy. The poem has been criticized by some as the work of a novice because of its contradicting imagery--some of it agricultural and some of it, maritime--until a deeper analysis shows how appropriately they are interwoven.
Mary was horrified and banished him from Scotland. He ignored the edict, and two days later he forced his way into her chamber as she was about to disrobe.
She reacted with fury and fear, and when Moray rushed into the room, in reaction to her cries for help, she shouted, "Thrust your dagger into the villain! Chastelard was tried for treason, and beheaded. Darnley's parents, the Earl and Countess of Lennoxwho were Scottish aristocrats as well as English landowners, had sent him to France ostensibly to extend their condolences while hoping for a potential match between their son and Mary.
They next met on Saturday 17 February at Wemyss Castle in Scotland,  after which Mary fell in love with the "long lad" as Queen Elizabeth called him—he was over six feet tall.
The English ambassador Nicholas Throckmorton stated "the saying is that surely she [Queen Mary] is bewitched",  adding that the marriage could only be averted "by violence".
Mary returned to Edinburgh the following month to raise more troops. Mary's numbers were boosted by the release and restoration to favour of Lord Huntly's sonand the return of James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwellfrom exile in France.
Not content with his position as king consort, he demanded the Crown Matrimonialwhich would have made him a co-sovereign of Scotland with the right to keep the Scottish throne for himself if he outlived his wife. He was jealous of her friendship with her Catholic private secretary, David Rizziowho was rumoured to be the father of her child.
She was thought to be near death or dying.
Mary Queen of Scots: “In my end is my beginning”
Her recovery from 25 October onwards was credited to the skill of her French physicians. He recuperated from his illness in a house belonging to the brother of Sir James Balfour at the former abbey of Kirk o' Fieldjust within the city wall. Men say that, instead of seizing the murderers, you are looking through your fingers while they escape; that you will not seek revenge on those who have done you so much pleasure, as though the deed would never have taken place had not the doers of it been assured of impunity.
For myself, I beg you to believe that I would not harbour such a thought.