Rosalind Franklin :: DNA from the Beginning
Rosalind Franklin and the DNA Scavenger Hunt In the early s When Water Gets Icy · Your Dog's Personality · Breaking Proteins .. In , James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins got the Quiz Yourself. British scientist Rosalind Franklin at work on the microscope. of DNA, along with fellow scientists James Watson and Maurice Wilkins. . They maintained their working relationship for more than 30 years. .. Take the Quiz. One, Rosalind Franklin was working at King's College at the University of London . The other two, James Watson and Francis Crick were friends and lab mates some 50 miles away at the Cavendish Laboratory at . Practice: Quiz: Life.
On the other hand, Eris is 34 percent denser than Pluto. Eris is responsible for the big debate over the definition of "planet. The discovery of Eris came on the heels of the discoveries of Sedna and Quaoar, both beyond the orbit of Neptune. Astronomers were looking at the possibility of a dozen planets in the solar system or more, because—based on these three—who knew how many Pluto-sized bodies were out there?
Yet the debate continues [ PDF ]. It has its own moon.
Eris has a moon called Dysnomia that circles the dwarf planet every 16 days. Initially, Eris was called Xena. Before it was called Eris, it was called UB a provisional designation by the International Astronomical Union. Its surface is like Pluto's heart.
The primary way to analyze the composition of the surface of a celestial body is through spectroscopy, which is basically looking at an object and seeing how much light comes back at you as a function of wavelength. He was impressed with Franklin's work and offered her a job as a "chercheur" in the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l'Etat.
Here she learned X-ray diffraction techniques from Jacques Mering.
Rosalind Franklin: Biography & Discovery of DNA Structure
InFranklin was offered a 3-year research scholarship at King's College in London. With her knowledge, Franklin was to set up and improve the X-ray crystallography unit at King's College. Franklin arrived while Wilkins was away and on his return, Wilkins assumed that she was hired to be his assistant.
It was a bad start to a relationship that never got any better.
Working with a student, Raymond Gosling, Franklin was able to get two sets of high-resolution photos of crystallized DNA fibers. She used two different fibers of DNA, one more highly hydrated than the other.
15 Facts About Rosalind Franklin | Mental Floss
From this she deduced the basic dimensions of DNA strands, and that the phosphates were on the outside of what was probably a helical structure. She presented her data at a lecture in King's College at which James Watson was in attendance.
In his book The Double Helix, Watson admitted to not paying attention at Franklin's talk and not being able to fully describe the lecture and the results to Francis Crick. They began taking X-ray images of crystals of DNA, believing that its crystallization meant it must have a regular structure.
Was She, or Wasn't She?
In the early s Pauling, a prominent chemist doing molecular research in the States, seemed a likely candidate to unlock the mystery of life, since he had already concluded that the general shape of DNA must be a helix, or spiral.
The Race The victory, however, went to three people working in England, in one of the great scientific races of all time. The other two, James Watson and Francis Crick were friends and lab mates some 50 miles away at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University, where they worked cooperatively and shared their ideas.
She had earned her PhD in from Cambridge in physical chemistry. She became extremely skilled in X-ray crystallography, able to produce clear and accurate diffraction images of DNA crystals by using fine-focus X-ray equipment and pure DNA samples.
Francis Crick, age 35 inwas working on his PhD in the crystallography of proteins. He had grown up in a small English village and, since he had failed to qualify for Cambridge, took his undergraduate degree in physics from the University of London.
Watson, only 23 inwas at Cambridge as a postdoctorate fellow in biology with limited knowledge of chemistry. He was at the Cambridge lab to learn crystallography. Between and January Franklin reasoned through her precise X-ray diffraction images that: In late she recorded an especially clear X-ray diffraction image that her col- league, Maurice Wilkins, later showed to Watson in January without telling Franklin or asking her permission.
Franklin and Wilkins did not always communicate well, so his actions were perhaps not surprising. He was so excited that he returned to his lab to draw up plans for models that the machine shop would construct out of sheet metal and wire.
In building their models, Watson and Crick had to find the answers to several questions. How many strands did the helix have? Which direction did the strands run? Were they on the inside or the outside?