Pakistan's civilian government has little control over the country's powerful Despite governmental failings and difficult civil-military relations in Pakistan, public and security challenges that the Pakistani state has faced from the onset . Before the July national elections Pakistani media were replete with. Press-Government Relations in. Structural-Functionalist Perspective: A Case of Pakistan under General Zia (from to ). Zafar Iqbal. Assistant Professor. Pakistani media came under increased political pressure in as part of a broader Also during the year, journalists continued to face a high level of violence and including national security, economic affairs, and international relations. At the provincial level, the governments of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Ten percent of the violations were noted in the restive Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Additionally, a semiautonomous tribal region bordering Afghanistan had 8 percent of the total registered cases.
Five journalists from different cities of Pakistan died in the line of duty, and 20 attacks were registered on media organizations last year. The report indicated TV journalists were more vulnerable than journalists belonging to other media such as print, social media or radio.
Protesters condemned killings of Indian Kashmiris and media black out by Indian authorities.
Those who go out in the field to dig stories and bring facts to the nation should not be killed in the line of duty," said Rasul Baksh Raees, a political analyst from Pakistan. Raees and others say the threat to journalists is nothing new, because they have always paid a price in Pakistan. Independence jeopardized Some experts believe the continued oppression against freedom of speech and expression has forced many media companies and journalists to self-censor. They avoid reporting news and facts that may result in violence.
This will have a serious and grave impact on investigative journalism in the country," Khattak said.
Imran Khan has won over Pakistan. But real power still lies with the army
Mehdi Hasan, a Lahore-based media historian and current chairman of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, echoed those concerns. That is a plague for freedom of expression and deprives people of their right to information," Hasan told VOA.
He added that in its year history, journalism in Pakistan has always faced pressure from state and nonstate circles. Supporters of Pakistan's political party Tehreek-e-Insaf protest against curbing of freedom of expression through social media in Islamabad, Pakistan, May 22, While many analysts and media experts criticize the self-censorship and the suppression of free speech in the country, some also maintain that journalism in Pakistan has to re-evaluate the problems within itself and find a solution.
Soul searching "I agree the findings of this report are disturbing and heartbreaking. Journalists should not have to live in an environment of fear. Those who go out to report events should not be killed, and no media group should be made to practice self-censorship," said Amir Ilyas Rana, a senior Islamabad-based journalist. They invite problems by making false claims regarding different important institutions of the country. Embassy Islamabad Public Affairs Section. The program provides journalists with valuable new perspectives and insights on this critically important relationship, a wealth of contacts and resources for future reporting, and friendships with professional colleagues in the other country upon whom to draw throughout their careers.
Journalists will study each other's cultures as they are immersed in newsrooms in each country. The program will include events and opportunities to experience U.
Freedom of Expression in Pakistan Continues to Face Challenges
Representatives from the U. Pakistanis will receive four-week internships at U. Participants on both sides will have opportunities to report on their experiences in each country, which will help to educate their audiences and dispel myths and misconceptions that people carry in each country about residents of the other. The CEJ serves as a hub for the professional development, training and networking of Pakistani journalists and media professionals from all parts of the country. A partnership with Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism and the Institute of Business Administration IBA aims to provide targeted, practical trainings for Pakistani journalists in print, broadcast, and digital media.
Courses will be co-instructed by faculty from the Medill School, accomplished newsroom managers, editors and reporters from the United States, and prominent media professionals from Pakistan. History[ edit ] The first step in introducing media laws in the country was done by the then military ruler and President Ayub Khan who promulgated the Press and Publication Ordinance PPO in The law empowered the authorities to confiscate newspapers, close down news providers, and arrest journalists.
Using these laws, Ayub Khan nationalised large parts of the press and took over one of the two largest news agencies. The other agencies was pushed into severe crisis and had to seek financial support from the government.Pakistan Foreign Minister Talking About Pakistan and America Relations --Pakistan New Government
Pakistani Radio and Televisionwhich was established in was also brought under the strict control of the government. According to these new amendments, the publisher would be liable and prosecuted if a story was not to the liking of the administration even if it was factual and of national interest. These amendments were used to promote Haq's Islamist leanings and demonstrated the alliance between the military and religions leaders.
Censorship during the Zia years was direct, concrete and dictatorial. Newspapers were scrutinised; critical or undesired sections of an article censored. In the wake of Zia-ul-Haq's sudden death and the return of democracy, the way was paved to abate the draconian media laws through a revision of media legislation called the Revised PPO RPPO.
Fromunder General Pervez Musharrafthe Pakistani media faced a decisive development that would lead to a boom in Pakistani electronic media and paved the way to it gaining political clout. New liberal media laws broke the state's monopoly on the electronic media. TV broadcasting and FM radio licenses were issued to private media outlets. The military's motivation for liberalising media licensing was based on an assumption that the Pakistani media could be used to strengthen national security and counter any perceived threats from India.
What prompted this shift was the military's experience during the two past confrontations with India. One was the Kargil War and the other was the hijacking of the India Airliner by militants. In both these instances, the Pakistani military was left with no options to reciprocate because its electronic media were inferior to that of the Indian media. Better electronic media capacity was needed in the future and thus the market for electronic media was liberalised.
The justification was just as much a desire to counter the Indian media poweras it was a wish to set the media "free" with the rights that electronic media had in liberal, open societies.
The military thought it could still control the media and harness it if it strayed from what the regime believed was in the national interest - and in accordance with its own political agenda. This assessment however proved to be wrong as the media and in particular the new many new TV channels became a powerful force in civil society. The media became an important actor in the process that led to fall of Musharraf and his regime.
By providing extensive coverage of the Lawyer's Movement's struggle to get the chief justice reinstated, the media played a significant role in mobilising civil society.
Freedom of Expression in Pakistan Continues to Face Challenges
This protest movement, with millions of Pakistanis taking to the streets in the name of having an independent judiciary and democratic rule, left Musharraf with little backing from civil society and the army.
Ultimately, he had to call for elections. Recently, due to a renewed interplay between civil society organisations, the Lawyers' Movement and the electronic media, Pakistan's new President, Asif Ali Zardari had to give in to public and political pressure and reinstate the chief justice.