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A secondary education inclusive of mathematics as a subject is a matriculation qualification achieved at an academic high school. A secondary education with science as a subject is a Grade 12 qualification acquired at an academic high school. A technical-type secondary education, inclusive of mathematics and science as subjects, is obtained through a technical high school or TVET institution. The fifth type of secondary education does not include mathematics and science as Grade 12 subjects and is attained at an academic high school.
For the purposes of this study, this type of secondary education is referred to as the general type of secondary education. The literature review leads to the study's four hypotheses: There is a significant relationship between levels of verbal reasoning and type of secondary education incorporating subject choice.
There is a significant relationship between levels of non-verbal reasoning and type of secondary education incorporating subject choice. There is a significant relationship between levels of visual perceptual speed and type of secondary education incorporating subject choice. There is a significant relationship between types of secondary education incorporating subject choice and success in the screening process. The quantitative research design and methodology employed in this study will subsequently be explained, followed by a presentation of the study's findings.
Research design Research approach The underpinning research philosophy for this research project was a positivist perspective. A cross-sectional convenience survey design, which involved standardised questionnaires, was implemented this data. Research method Research participants The study assessed conveniently sampled prescreened work-seeking candidates for an automotive operator position in South Africa.
This is because of the project being part of a large recruitment process at a South African automobile plant. The target population was screened on the basis of the type of Grade 12 qualification obtained, with a need for representation across the five types of secondary education delineated in this study. In order to improve the accuracy of the study's findings, the complete prescreened sampling frame constituted the sample size.
A large portion The second highest category Respondents who completed their Grade 12 qualification with mathematics as a Grade 12 subject were the third highest category at A technical N3, a Grade 12 equivalent, was completed by 7. Measuring instruments Differential Aptitude Test battery: In this research study, the DAT-K version was used, which is the standard form applicable to individuals who have completed Grades A job analysis of the operator position was conducted at this particular automotive plant.
This job analysis indicated that three aptitude skills, namely verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning and attention to detail, were potentially predictive of operator job performance.
Three subtests from the DAT-K test battery were therefore used to collect data in this study. The key differences with regard to purpose, items per instrument and timing of these subtests are discussed. The verbal reasoning subtest: The intention of this instrument is to establish an aspect of general reasoning on the basis of verbal material. The tool is based on the supposition that the skill of identifying relationships, being able to conduct word similarities and to decipher broad problems utilising rational thought, as well as a person's vocabulary experience is a valid indication of an aspect of general reasoning.
The non-verbal reasoning subtest: The aim of this tool is to determine an aspect of general reasoning on the basis of non-verbal items.
The instrument comprises two sections. The first section rests on the postulation that the capacity to identify the association between figures and thereby select the correct matching missing figure is a valid sign of an aspect of non-verbal reasoning ability. In the second section, a series of modified figures is presented. The correct identification and application of the underlying principle informing the modification is regarded as a valid sign of an aspect of non-verbal reasoning ability.
The visual perceptual speed subtest: This instrument seeks to ascertain the candidate's visual perceptual speed, which is the ability to make swift and precise discernments of the similarities and dissimilarities between visual arrangements. The rationale of this technique is that the ability to identify the one grouping of characters numerical, alphabetical or diagrammatical that is not consistent with the other four groupings is a valid indication of visual perceptual speed. The reliability of the three DAT-K subtests used in this study was established with the aid of the Kuder-Richardson formula The predictive validity of the DAT-K subtests is also confirmed.
This was ascertained by the significant Pearson product moment correlation coefficients realised between the subtests and year-end school subject results obtained. Furthermore, the content validity of the DAT-K battery was established by a committee of specialists independent of the test developers.
The construct validity of the subtests was examined through subjecting the norm group's data to confirmatory factor analysis. Research procedure The assessment process was conducted over several months during working hours. Two groups were assessed per weekday of scheduled assessment. The participants' anonymity and confidentiality was maintained and assurance was provided that the research findings would not jeopardise either the participant or the organisation. Information on the use of the results was provided at the commencement of the assessment process, and permission was obtained from the respondents through a consent form.
Answer sheets were manually scored using a scoring stencil. In adherence to standard psychometric assessment practice, raw scores were converted to stanines, using the appropriate norm table. Ethical consideration Ethical clearance to conduct the study was obtained from the University of Fort Hare's Research and Ethics Committee.
Permission was then obtained from the Human Resource Management Department of an automotive plant to collect data in the organisation.
Descriptive statistics, in the form of two types of central tendency measures, namely the median and mode, were employed for the stanine results obtained for the three aptitude subtests.Sex Container :: Relationship Goals (Part 6)
Based on a previously conducted job analysis, a stanine 3 cut-off requirement was set for each of the three aptitude subtests as qualifying screening criterion to progress to the next screening phase. In preparation for the execution of the inferential statistics, the aptitude subtests' results were tabulated into three categories: The moderate category comprised the fourth to sixth stanine scores and described the low average to high average percentile ranges.
The seventh to ninth stanine scores were designated to the high scoring category. These three scoring categories were created as they ensured equal variance in each group and statistically it made sense.
Inferential statistics were then performed on these three scoring categories. In this study, the dependent variables were the three aptitudes assessed and the independent variable was the type of secondary education incorporating subject choice obtained.
To test the significance of the relationship between the variables for hypothesesthe Chi-square test of independence was used. An alpha level of 0. In order to elucidate the magnitude of the relationship between the variables, effect size statistics were employed and interpreted. Results Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics for the three aptitude subtests are displayed in Table 1. The medians for all three subtests were in the moderate stanines range with the verbal reasoning subtest's median being slightly higher than that obtained for both the non-verbal reasoning and visual perceptual speed subtests.
Table 1 also depicts that modes of seven, in the high range, were achieved for each of the three aptitude subtests. Inferential statistics Chi-square tests of independence were performed to examine the relationship between the type of secondary education incorporating subject choice and the stanine scores attained in the three aptitude tests, grouped according to low, moderate and high scores.
Table 5 indicates the applicants' overall success in the screening process. Hypothesis 1 There is a significant relationship between levels of verbal reasoning and type of secondary education qualification incorporating subject choice: The effect size between the dependent and independent variables was regarded as large and hence contextualises the importance of this finding Pallant, Table 2 highlights that over half the respondents with mathematics as a subject in their Grade 12 qualification gained through an academic high school obtained high category scores in the verbal reasoning subtest, more than the applicants in any of the other four types of secondary education.
Nevertheless, the group with a technical Grade 12 qualification outperformed both these groupings in the moderate stanine category. Hypothesis 1 was therefore accepted. Hypothesis 2 There is a significant relationship between levels of non-verbal reasoning and type of secondary education qualification incorporating subject choice: A secondary education gained through an academic high school with mathematics and science as subjects was linked to both moderate and high stanine scores.
Hypothesis 2 was therefore accepted. Hypothesis 3 There is a significant relationship between levels of visual perceptual speed and type of secondary education qualification incorporating subject choice: Table 4 reveals that the association between the type of matriculation incorporating subject choice and the visual perceptual speed subtest stanine scores realised was significant: A statistically significant p-value of 0. The degree to which the two variables are associated with one another therefore reveals moderate practical significance for this finding Pallant, Hypothesis 3 was therefore accepted.
Hypothesis 4 There is a significant relationship between type of secondary education qualification incorporating subject choice and success in the screening process: A Chi-square test of independence was conducted to determine whether selection outcomes were associated with applicants' type of matric education incorporating subject choice. A statistically significant interaction was found: Students with a secondary education gained through an academic high school including mathematics and science as subjects, and a secondary education gained through an academic high school including the mathematics subject were more likely to be recommended and hence successful in the assessment process.
Whilst these results are statistically significant, they may have limited practical significance. The Grade 12 qualification gained through an academic high school that includes the mathematics subjects had the largest percentage The second largest grouping recommended following the aptitude testing was the Grade 12 qualification gained through an academic high school including both the mathematics and science subjects as In comparison to these two types of secondary education, only Hypothesis 4 was therefore accepted.
Discussion The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between verbal, non-verbal reasoning and visual perceptual speed aptitude test scores and types of secondary education incorporating subject choice. The initial stage of a multiple hurdles selection approach resulted in recommendation outcomes for an entry-level technical position.
These selection outcome results were analysed in relation to the types of secondary education incorporating subject choice attained by the potential employees. Outline of the results The findings from the study's four hypotheses led to the generation of two conclusions. These conclusions outline the different selection outcomes achieved by matriculants with different types of secondary education. The first conclusion pertains to the recommended types of secondary education incorporating subject choice following the first phase of selection outcomes.
Based on the results obtained, two types of secondary education incorporating subject choice are recommended, namely, the secondary education gained through an academic high school types inclusive of mathematics and science or just mathematics. Respondents with a Grade 12 qualification gained through an academic high school which included mathematics performed consistently better in comparison to the other four types of secondary education.
Specifically, this type of secondary education inclusive of the mathematics subject outperformed the other matriculation types in non-verbal reasoning. The applicants with a secondary education gained through an academic high school inclusive of mathematics and science consistently performed well across the three aptitudes assessed. The common dominator in these two types of matriculation is the mathematics subject.
Recent neurological research has established that enhanced abilities in mathematics may well influence cognitive abilities Baker et al. This study has confirmed that the common denominator for a successful selection outcome as an automotive operator is an academic-type secondary education inclusive of the mathematic subject. In order to adequately cope with the various transformations and competitive challenges being experienced, the automobile industry therefore needs to focus specifically on academic Grade 12 qualifications inclusive of mathematics as a selection criterion for automotive operators.
The second conclusion pertains to the qualification types incorporating subject choice that are not recommended based on the selection outcomes of the first phase of this multiple-hurdle selection process. Whilst the secondary education gained through an academic high school inclusive of the science subject outperformed the other matriculation types in verbal reasoning, this matriculation type did not perform well in the non-verbal reasoning subtest.
Applicants with the technical and general types of secondary education consistently performed poorly in the three aptitude subtests. It is therefore concluded that these three types of matriculation are not as successful in their selection outcomes as the two matriculation types gained through an academic high school inclusive of the mathematics subject. The overall results of the study revealed statistically distinct relationships between the applicants' type of secondary education and the three aptitudes assessed in this study.
It is therefore concluded that the applicants' type of secondary education was as effective as a predictor of potential as the cognitive aptitude subtests' scores attained by these candidates.
Hitler's Silent Majority? Conformity and Resistence Under the Third Reich (Part Two)
This conclusion highlights that secondary education can be used as a more time- and cost-efficient preliminary screening measure, specifically for entry-level technical positions. This finding is in contradiction to that of Berry, Gruys and Sackett who upheld that selection using CATs was a more efficient screening instrument than educational attainment. Practical implications The contribution of this research study is fourfold. Firstly, this study has confirmed the well-founded belief that standardised psychometric measures are efficient predictors of performance Deary et al.
Secondly, given the scant research on the relationship between the type of secondary education and cognitive abilities, this study adds to the human resource management field as the first study to successfully provide such data within a selection process for automotive operators.
Thirdly, this study's findings have accentuated the need to employ a multiple rather than a singular selection approach. This is of particular import in a context where the potential labour pool has been educated through a mass education system and where supply exceeds demand. These factors could plausibly lead to the inflation of credentials requiring employers to acquire additional information sources to discriminate between applicants Kuncel et al. Fourthly, this study has highlighted that the assessment of aptitude versus using type of schooling achievements incorporating subject choice is a useful debate in the light of employment equity challenges.
Secondary education could be instructive for human resource managers and practitioners in the screening processes they follow. The study's findings highlight that through using a multiple-hurdle selection approach, the use of type of secondary education can be successfully employed as the initial hurdle. This could add significant value to human resource managers and practitioners as they seek to optimise their allocated resources.
Using type of secondary education, rather than more expensive and time-consuming psychological tests, could save time and money.
ARM Advanced Resource Management GmbH
This approach thereby also alleviates the practitioner from the concerns associated with psychological testing and compliance with EEAA regulations. Limitations and recommendations This study was conducted as part of a large recruitment process completed by a South African automotive assembly plant. The sampling frame for this study was a database of prescreened potential operators.
In comparison to the census, the sample is not in line with either provincial or national data pertaining to age, race or gender Lehohla, This means that the main shortcoming of this research is that the results cannot be generalised to either the South African or global automobile industry. A second limitation is that the study did not explore the non-g factors that may have had a substantial influence on both educational achievement and the cognitive abilities demonstrated in the findings.
These factors include, amongst others, school attendance and engagement, interest, motivation and effort, the endowment of appropriate learning experiences, teaching quality and structure.
These potential relationships should be explored in future research. A third limitation could be the way in which the five types of secondary education incorporating subject choice were defined for this study. Whilst these types of secondary education are not referred to in literature, they were distinct categories of selection for the automotive industry concerned.
It is recommended that future research considers whether there is a relationship between the subject marks obtained by applicants and the aptitudes assessed in this study. Conclusion The objective of the study was to establish the relationship between the type of secondary education incorporating subject choice obtained and three aptitude test scores attained by potential operators within the automotive industry.
There was a statistically significant relationship between the applicants' type of secondary education incorporating subject choice and the three aptitudes assessed in this study. The strength of the association ranged between moderate and considerable practical significance. This has highlighted the noteworthy usefulness of using type of secondary education, rather than psychological testing, as an initial screening mechanism within a multiple-hurdle selection approach.
The value for human resource managers and practitioners in implementing this technique lies in the time and cost saved, as well as not having to adhere to the EEAA rules and regulations associated with psychological testing. Acknowledgements This research study formed part of a large recruitment process completed within a South African automotive assembly plant.
The internal Human Resource project team played a large role in the communication and administration of the project. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship s that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.
The article flows from her research in this regard. The neuropsychology of cognition without reading. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 25, Improving reasoning skills in secondary history education by working memory training.
British Educational Research Journal, 41 2 A model for personnel selection with a data mining approach: A case study in a commercial bank. The cognitive impact of the education revolution: A possible cause of the Flynn Effect on population IQ.
Schooling as a neurocognitive developmental institution. Educational and ecological correlates of IQ: Schooling quality in a cross-section of countries. An International Review, 53 2 Educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability in selection: Moreover, to the bloody example of 27 February the savage repression of the Left surrounding the Reichstag fire were added the further demonstration effects of 30 June the Night of the Long Knives against the SA and 9 November "Crystal Night".
Given the spectacular quality of these events and their pervasive effects, Gellately and Johnson take a surprisingly literal-minded view of Nazi repression.
The inhabitants of the Third Reich hardly needed to be hauled off for Gestapo interrogation to feel the presence and efficacy of Nazi terror. If I know that on the next block several homes have been ransacked and the inhabitants beaten up and imprisoned, or that a sizeable contingent of my militant workmates have disappeared, and if I see political differences being settled by concentration camps and summary executions, or notice the plentiful evidence of bloodied sidewalks and broken glass, I might be forgiven for internalizing some fears.
I might also be forgiven for choosing not to express these anxieties or talk about them with family and friends. I might certainly be forgiven for not voicing them in public. To reduce this dialectic to a straightforward thesis about "consensus" is too much like the sound of one hand clapping. While Gellately never hides the coerciveness of Nazi rule—indeed its horrendousness is vital to his case—he constantly downplays its reach, making the victims into easily scapegoated marginals whose disappearance left the heartland of German society intact.
But the commonplace climate of terror mentioned above meant that the violence couldn't be contained as easily as that. What Gellately calls "a murderous game of pillorying, excluding, and eventually eliminating unwanted social 'elements' and 'race enemies'" was always more extensive in its lessons. In the first six months offor example, there were convictions for treason, with executions; 8, Germans were charged with leftwing activity, 8, with "resistance", and 11, with "opposition"; and 10, were arrested for fraternizing with prisoners of war and foreign slave laborers.
But when he concludes that "the Nazis did not need to use widespread terror against the population to establish the regime," something has gone seriously awry in his account. He shows that the persecution of Jews, foreign workers, and "social outsiders" required the active participation of the general population, including the desire for private gain, whether by denouncing personal enemies or plundering Jewish property.
Yet this is precisely the point, I would argue, where "consent and coercion" became dialectically entwined. The parading of the achievements of the camp system might certainly imply widespread popular endorsement of the Third Reich's "law and order" society, as Gellately claims.
But it also reminded potential dissenters of the fates in store. Unrestrained public display of the regime's carceral zeal engendered fear, anxiety, and intimidation as often as the support and reassurance Gellately prefers to diagnose. Not to see these "coercive" dimensions is surprisingly one-sided.
As I argued in the first part of this essay, the social histories emerging from the s tended to view "social context" and "ideology" dichotomously, with the first receiving clear analytical priority over the second. And if the next scholarly wave of the s took the social efficacy of ideas more seriously, it did so more by looking at particular fields of knowledge or the prevailing philosophies in particular professions than by theorizing the penetration of Nazi values into everyday life.
Using a single career, for example, Ulrich Herbert's biography of the senior SS officer Werner Best provides a devastating insight into the ideological synergy forged by intellectual ambition, racialist philosophy, and technocratic reason in one particular Nazi life. If that consensus was less securely founded upon "consent" than they think, requiring both constant attention to social divisions and palpable sanctions of violence, then the regime's ability to insinuate itself into ordinary life was still extremely impressive.
And it was there that the broader repertoire of Nazi public intervention became so crucial—namely, all those areas of state-directed action that Johnson and Gellately bracket from the narrowly drawn compass of Gestapo-organized terror, but which were nonetheless intimately linked to coercion, from the Hitler Youth, the League of German Maidens, and the National Socialist Womanhood to the People's Welfare and the increasingly elaborate regulations defining marriage, sexuality, child-raising, and reproduction.
To them may also be added the Nazi public sphere of elaborately staged mass events, which instituted the "aestheticization of violence" through the regimented rallies, festivals, commemorations, associated monumental architecture, and spectacular ritualizing of public transactions.
Together, these organized interventions filled up the space of public life while corroding previously tolerated private domains. The Volksgemeinschaft was an immensely coercive abstraction in that sense, concentrating all allowable affiliations into a single and aggressively wielded exclusive loyalty.
The mass voluntarism of Nazi public culture was in reality its very opposite—a repressive and authoritarian coerciveness that belies the more limited definition of "Nazi terror" Johnson and Gellately seek to apply.
As Burleigh points out using the example of Winter Aid, participating or not participating in the state's obligatory charitable drive could bring either the warmth of patriotic sentimentality or the opprobrium of exclusionary disgust: A choice had become a potential political crime.
Public Remembering and Exemplary Lives If one thing remains clear, it is the enduring fascination of the Third Reich for wider publics.
Hitler's Silent Majority? Conformity and Resistence Under the Third Reich (Part Two)
For large audiences in Europe, Israel, and North America, often poorly informed but passionately engaged, the Nazi past continues to exert its power. Since the late s its perceived threat against civilized political values has been repeatedly recharged by fresh controversies and scandals.
In one of the most recent of these the U. Jewish historian Deborah Lipstadt and Penguin Books successfully defended themselves in London against a libel suit brought by the British historical writer David Irving, who charged that Lipstadt's Denying the Holocaust falsely accused him of distorting the historical record for the purposes of Holocaust denial. By the time Judge Charles Gray delivered his page final judgment on 11 AprilLipstadt was fully vindicated at the expense of Irving's scholarly reputation: Evans, a leading German historian and Professor of Modern History at Cambridge, acted as chief historical adviser in Penguin's and Lipstadt's defense.
He worked with two research assistants for eighteen months gathering and sifting through the relevant documentation, checking it painstakingly against the claims made by Irving in his writings and speeches, and examining the accuracy and probity of his use of evidence. After submitting his page report in Julyhe then testified as the main expert witness for the defense at the trial.
His book, Lying About Hitler, is a devastating exposure of the tendentiousness of Irving's works, from his very first book on the Allied bombing of Dresden through the studies of "Hitler's War" to the most recent biographies of Nazi leaders. At the trial itself, Evans provided exactly the meticulous and unbending attentiveness to archival veracity the proceedings required, recalling Irving's questioning repeatedly to the documentary record, and clarifying what the latter could authorize and what it could not.
D, like Irving, to be dismissed, but as a set of rules and procedures for judging evidence and its uses. As he says in his very first sentence: From historians, in contrast, we expect a truthfulness whose tedious and demanding prerequisites are all too easily taken for granted or dismissed as pedantry. Even a casual reader of the case reports could quickly see how painstaking genuine historical scholarship is: But when Evans works it into a normative description for history at large, doubts creep in.
He finds too easy an equivalence between "the rules of evidence in court" and "the rules of evidence observed by historians. We can surely uphold the one—the necessity of "constructing an accurate picture of what happened by the discovery of verifiable facts" —without denying the force of the other, namely, everything else acting consciously and unconsciously on historians when doing their work.
The historian's agency reflects far more than the virtuous and self-denying labors foregrounded by Evans. Conversely, he draws the trial's meanings too exclusively around history's evidentiary rules. If "the decisive issues" before the court were indeed "intellectual and legal rather than moral or political ones"that hardly means they lacked ethical and political content. The trial was heavily laden at every level with such meanings, and to deny their seepage seems obtuse.
Moreover, "If Irving had won," it would not "have been a resounding defeat for professional history rather than for collective memory. But historians of Nazism would have gone on living their lives and doing their work just as before, though doubtless feeling more resentful against the indifference of the wider public.
The boundaries isolating "professional history" from other things—politics, journalism, other academic fields like Holocaust studies, which Evans treats with particular disdain —are not quite as sharply drawn as Evans might wish. We do not have to compromise our commitment to the archive, or to a proximate and pragmatic goal of objectivity, in order to see all the complex ways in which historical agendas become composed.
Nor do we have to embrace everything done in the name of Holocaust studies to welcome a great deal of the knowledge they inspire, often beyond the disciplinary boundaries of history in Evans's rather narrowly drawn sense.
In that sense, history's perimeter fences cannot be as easily secured as defenders like Evans would like—nor should they be. Mark Roseman's A Past in Hiding: Memory and Survival in Nazi Germany brilliantly captures these "un-disciplined" potentials, because neither in its archive nor in its conceptual framework—nor for that matter in its writing strategies—does it much resemble the conventional scholarly monograph.
It tells the story of Marianne Ellenbogen borndaughter of a prosperous Essen grain merchant Siegfried Strauss, and his wife, Regina, whose family history in many ways typified the Jewish German experience of the twentieth century. Observantly Jewish and ardently German, both sides of the Strauss family revealed the trajectory of "acculturation" which by was separating Germany's Jews from their co-religionists in the east. Under the Third Reich, of course, neither these patriotic credentials nor their social standing protected the family from the Nazi onslaught.
While various members of the extended family managed to emigrate and some younger cousins escaped, Marianne's parents and younger brother, her grandmother, her paternal uncles and aunts, and her mother's sister and husband were all deported to the east and killed.
In these bare outlines the story sounds familiar, appending a finely drawn miniature to the known record—a microcosm of the general processes analyzed by Kershaw and Burleigh, and a vivid biographical counterpoint to the Gestapo studies of Johnson and Gellately.
Roseman observes "the extraordinary insouciance" with which Marianne's parents dealt with the Third Reich, for instance, as they sought to minimize the effects of the tightening legal restrictions and hostile public climate, while continuing to deflect the frightening implications.
The wanton destruction of property, violence against persons, and deportations to Dachau made the stakes irrevocably clear. After his three weeks in Dachau, Siegfried Strauss was "a changed man. Germany's Jews became more isolated, economic coercion hardened, and with the outbreak of war the door for emigration largely closed.
As the Strauss family slowly succumbed to this fate, their experience seems horribly predictable, "more or less the same as those of many other patriotic, well-to-do, provincial, middle-class German Jews.
For one thing, they were reprieved from deportation on 26 Octoberdismissed from the Essen assembly point at the last minute by the Gestapo and sent home. Hammacher, to the Abwehr, the Army's intelligence arm, which under Admiral Wilhelm Canaris and Major General Hans Oster was stealthily obstructing Nazi policies from until mid One of the Abwehr's achievements, we now know, was to have protected a small number of Jews, usually veterans with a good war record, by allowing them to leave as refugees on the pretext of using them for intelligence purposes in the Americas.
On this basis, an intricate dance with the Gestapo ensued behind the scenes as the Abwehr sought to give the Strauss brothers time to organize their emigration. After excruciatingly tortuous negotiations with Gestapo, associated SS offices, tax authorities, the Currency Office, and other agencies, the family was finally approved to leave for Cuba in August only to have the Gestapo abruptly pull the rug from under them.
On 31 August, the family were given two hours to prepare for deportation. The future collapsed like a house of cards. Its revelations of the limited interconnections that survived Jewish ostracism between the Nuremberg Laws and deportation, even after the violence of "Crystal Night" and the outbreak of war, suggest both the persistence of nonconforming behaviors and their painfully prosaic scope.
Any continuing intercourse between Jews and their fellow citizens oozed the ambivalent and compromised meanings that social historians from Broszat to Peukert have stressed.
Secondary education as a predictor of aptitude: Implications for selection in the automotive sector
Any willingness to help was laden with self-interest. Self-interest came alone from the hopelessly incommensurate exchanges imposed by anti-Jewish regulations under the shadow of "Aryanization," whatever the individual motivations. Property and possessions committed by departing Jews to the safe-keeping of "Aryan" friends or neighbors were often presumed to be permanent gifts. Under such conditions, friendship circulated in a seller's market.
Where the chance to be supportive came from a prior business relationship, altruism and human sympathies easily "merged with legal opportunities for enrichment, which in turn merged with outright corruption on the part of the Gestapo and city officials. Yet he also provides evidence of extraordinary altruism, which takes us to the heart of Marianne's own story. In late she fell in love with Ernst Krombach bornson of David Krombach, a leading Essen lawyer, whose family "belonged to the same assimilated, patriotic wing of the Essen Jewish community as the Strausses.
Most amazingly of all, Marianne found a direct link to the camp. Twenty-eight-year-old Christian Arras owned an Essen truck dealership and repair shop doing military contract work. He was acquainted with the Strauss family, knew Ernst and other Jews deported to Izbica, and decided to go there at huge risk to himself, offering to take letters and some goods. On the pretext of accompanying repaired Army trucks, he reached Izbica on 19 August and bribed his way into the camp. He returned with a bundle of letters and an eighteen-page report from Ernst for Marianne on camp conditions, plus a four-page "task list" of possible contacts and instructions.
This document's unique qualities—likely the sole contemporary account of Izbica and a rare report by a German Jew on the experience of deportation written at the time—were matched by the startling incongruity of Arras's role: But by patient corroboration, including interviews with Arras's widow and two other Jewish witnesses to his deed, plus an entry from a diary held by the Essen city archive, and the absence of a party or SS personnel file on Arras, Roseman reaches a firm conclusion: Arras was acting courageously out of human decency, "an unlikely hero"; ".
After losing contact with Ernst in late summer and learning of Izbica's virtual liquidation by December, her final efforts at tracing him were rebuffed by the Berlin Red Cross in Aprilforcing her slowly to accept his loss. Essen's remnant of Jews "were picked off one by one for deportation," until by July the Strausses became "probably the last full-Jewish family in the city, perhaps in the region. Sometime during the next two hours, Marianne's father slipped her a wad of banknotes, and while the Gestapo were distracted, she escaped.
After being held for a week at Essen police headquarters, her parents, brother, aunt, uncle, grandmother, and great-aunt were deported to Theresienstadt.
Marianne went successfully underground. This escape was feasible because of Marianne's links to an obscure Essen socialist network called the Bund.
Community for Socialist Lifewhich had formed in around Artur Jacobs, a charismatic teacher in the Volkshochschule people's further education movement, and his wife Dore, who ran dance and movement classes from the Blockhaus, which the Bund had opened as its Essen home in Like much wider left-wing activity during the Weimar Republic, disconnected from parties and informally based, the Bund joined a Marxist critique of capitalism to a Kantian conception of the ethical life: The Bund's aim was to create a socialist way of life that would incorporate the whole person—body, mind, and soul.
Marianne had met Jacobs through the Krombachs and after their deportation took solace in the Jacobses' company and the Bund's small clandestine subculture. After she eluded the Gestapo on 31 August, she took refuge in the Blockhaus.
Roseman depicts this underground life superbly, elucidating both the mundane practicalities of everyday survival and the quality of solidarity delivered by the Bund's collective milieu. His invaluable guide was Marianne's diary at the time, which opens singular access to her intellectual and emotional inner world, including her impassioned belief in the importance of philosophically mastering her fate, the quality of the human relationships she found in the Bund, and the sovereign self-control she exercised in the interests of self-preservation.
As well as recording practical experiences, she reflected on the Bund's "basic principles," reported her dreams, meditated on nature and landcape, probed the quality and conditions of friendship, and mourned the loss of Ernst and her family. Far more than a descriptive record, the diary is a moving document of interiority and courageous self-exploration, opening a fascinating window onto an obscured and dissident cultural history of the s, fully comparable to the often celebrated personal correspondence of aristocratic outliers like Adam von Trott and Helmut James von Moltke.
His success in capturing the unique drama of Marianne's story alone would qualify his book for distinction, because it defamiliarizes our imagery of the period in so many unexpected ways—from its disclosure of the family's protection by the Abwehr through Marianne's clandestine communications with the camp at Izbica to the revelations of the Bund's activities and the details of Marianne's life underground.
If exceptional in these ways, Marianne's story casts vivid light into some of the Third Reich's shadowed corners. By its very singularities—she survived, she enjoyed relations with non-Jewish Germans of perduring genuineness, she kept an intimate personal record—it bridges to contexts that otherwise remain closed. Throughout, Roseman succinctly connects Marianne's particulars to the general historical picture—whether in relation to schooling and further education, or to the impact of Reichskristallnacht and Jewish economic deterioration, or to the central stations of Jewish persecution.
There has been wider interest recently in approaching the history of Nazism using exemplary lives—the impact of Schindler's List reflected this, as did the attention given to Victor Klemperer's diaries, and the continuing large market for autobiographical writing about the Third Reich; Browning and Goldhagen each posed their questions of responsibility by the graphic examining of individual acts, as did Jan Gross in his similar study of the atrocities at Jedwabne.
Such interest also evokes the contemporary discourse of restitution, "truth and reconciliation," and accountability for injustices in the past. Much also concerns the reworking of memory as World War II recedes further away—the fragility of the sense of the past, as well as the terrible power it continues to exert. Most of all, the exemplary biography takes us much further inside the terrible arduousness of making a life under Nazi rule, of dealing with the unmanageable tensions its intrusive everydayness imposed.
The ethical dimension is most painfully and precisely engaged at this individual level, especially when approached retroactively by the complicated dialectics of memory and guilt. Here Roseman has two countervailing themes. One concerns the surprising "normality" of the life Marianne fashioned under Nazism—even under the constrictingly oppressive straits of Jewish isolation and of living on the run.
This was notably true of her schooldays, at least after Jews were formally expelled from state schools on 15 November Both the wider horizons she explored in Berlin and the rapture of her romance with Ernst which began after she returned in October enabled the marking of independence in that sense. But if the love relationship expanded voraciously into the psychic space of the final eighteen months before the Strauss family's deportation, imparting energy and direction to Marianne's behavior, Roseman makes her larger joie de vivre equally plain.
The ability to sink her identity into the collective ethos of the Bund, to the seeming effacement of any specifically Jewish predicament, bespoke the same earnest and impassioned commitment to life as such. In his insightful reading of Marianne's relationship with the Bund, Roseman returns several times to the question of "passing.
Her strength was precisely to have refused the fatefulness of the regime's racialized objectification. Her diaries are filled with abstract reflections on history and the philosophical problems of the present, and the Bund's holistic credo encouraged this identification with a future Germany capable of realizing the ideal of a generalized humanity.
Such an ethos allowed the group to "[break] through the sense of isolation that characterized daily life in Nazi Germany. At one level, of course, the grand narrative of "the Holocaust" had still to be supplied. She refused to internalize the category 'Jew' which the Nazis imposed on her.
In the company of the Bund and inspired by their philosophy, she sloughed off her former identity and slipped into being one of them. If existentially this was a defeat of necessity by freedom, however, it came at a huge price: Roseman's book pivots around Marianne's decision to save herself in a chapter called simply "The Escape," which is positioned roughly halfway through the account: The escape was one of the.
The memory never really left her. Above all, it stood under the twin stars of liberation and betrayal. It was both a moment of decision when her survival was balanced on a knife edge and the moment when she abandoned her family, probably forever.
She felt after one conflict a few months before "that there is nothing left to tie me to my parents" and longed for a physical separation. Becoming an adult under the best of circumstances requires extricating oneself from the wholeness of family and its promises, accepting its loss, and putting a part of one's past away. But in Marianne's case, this "normal challenge of emotionally disengaging from rather overbearing parents" was massively overdetermined by the deadly logic of Jewish persecution under the Third Reich.
The lifelong consequences of this personal tragedy for Marianne move Roseman to the general reflections on memory and history that form the larger framing of this work. When Marianne emerged from hiding at the end of the war, most of her past failed to resurface. Once the fates of her loved ones had been ascertained, she kept few contacts with any surviving Essen family and friends.
Apart from doggedly pursuing restitution claims in West Germany during the s, with all the usual dispiriting and demeaning encounters, she showed little interest in the Essen past. She seems to have discussed the wartime experiences with neither Basil Ellenbogen, the Jewish doctor and British officer she married innor her new Liverpool friends.
For her children, Vivian born and Elaine"the past made itself felt, above all, as unearthly, heavy silence. Jewishness was likewise a thin and ambivalent source of identification, based neither on her husband's Orthodoxy nor on any relationship to the ethical and ecumenical Judaism she shared with Ernst during The one main exception was the contact to the Bund, which remained active throughout the postwar time.
When in she finally reentered the past, it was from "a binding duty" to honor the Bund's fellowship. Her Liverpool home disclosed a rich personal archive, containing her wartime diaries, her love letters with Ernst, and his Izbica report, as well as the immediate postwar correspondence and all the elaborate documentation assembled for the needs of restitution. In her sessions with Roseman she released bits and pieces of this hoard, but it surfaced mostly after she died.
Together with the other sources Roseman painstakingly massaged into existence, the archive not only grounded and elaborated Marianne's spoken story, but also revealed memory's fallibility—not over the fundamentals but over the significant detail, by which the horrors of an atrocity might be magnified or a conflict among friends effaced, and occasionally an element in a key story changed.
Roseman came to conclude that Marianne's memory engineered such adjustments to negotiate the enormities of loss and guilt—guilt at survival, but also at her "sense of growing disconnection from the past. The gap between "memory" and "reality" could only frighten or disappoint. In that sense, Roseman suggests, she "saw herself as more the victim than the master of her memory.
Time and again, he revises or completes the voice of the "official" archive like the Gestapo records by mobilizing contemporary informants via interviews or correspondence. He found himself checking the conventional documentation against the evidence of the testimony as frequently as the other way round. Even more, in this case the historian's knowledge materialized not by the stereotypical progression from research proposal via the archives to the printed page, but by the splendid serendipity of chance encounters, unexpected suggestions, and hidden connections—"this subcommunity of hidden knowledge!
In constructing his history, moreover, Roseman interweaves the story of his own progress through the vagaries of the multiple categories of documentation, gradually adding ever richer layers of understanding from the moving margin of his knowledge. His ability to move back and forth between the telling of Marianne's story and the self-narrative of the unfolding of his own understanding produces a masterly meditation on the historian's craft.
The strains placed on "family" as a central value of Jewish and German social life by the Third Reich would be one, and the ineluctable "Germanness" of the Essen Jews when confronted with the "Easternness" of their co-religionists in Izbica would be another. Moreover, one of the most arresting aspects of the story is precisely the one blocked by Marianne's ground rules, namely the fifty years of her life that fell afteras against the eight years central to this book.
So far, the burgeoning literature on "memory and history" still focuses on what rememberings can tell us about the Nazi time per se; in the future, the insights for the postwar years—when the reworking of memories occurred—may be just as rich. Conclusion Over the past two decades historical understanding of the Third Reich has made extraordinary strides. The sheer scale and intensity of research alone are impressive. But some distinctive perspectives have also emerged.
While these lack the sharp "culturalist" edge so characteristic of historical thinking in the discipline at large since the s, they have nonetheless moved decisively away from the earlier ground of social history.
Against Tim Mason's search for the "workers' opposition," Martin Broszat's concept of Resistenz, and similar arguments about the recalcitrance or defensiveness of ordinary life, few historians believe any longer that Nazism's intrusiveness could be kept meaningfully at bay. Instead, the pervasiveness of Nazi impact on German society is broadly acknowledged. The overbearing moral coerciveness of the Volksgemeinschaft, historians now argue, legislated by the regime's machineries of exclusion and braced by Gestapo repression, caught anyone not directly debarred from its embrace in unavoidable logics of complicity.
If we have learned anything from all the powerful new scholarship, it concerns this necessary tainting of everyday transactions.