Features and Developments of Architecture during Mughal Period
The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in , when he Mughals experimented in establishing good inter-religious relations. Babur's son Humayun was dissolute and wayward in his early years and the Mughal empire fell to the Suris in The tomb of Sher Shah Suri is an. The Mughal (or Mogul) Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan in the Babur moved into Afghanistan in , and then moved on to India.
He demolished the austere sandstone structures of Akbar in the Red Fort and replaced them with marble buildings such as the Diwan-I-Am hall of public audiencethe Diwan-i-Khas hall of private audienceand the Moti Masjid Pearl Mosque.
In he began to lay out the city of Shahjahanabad beside the Jamuna river. The Red Fort at Delhi represents the pinnacle of centuries of experience in the construction of palace-forts.
Shah Jahan: Creator of the Taj Mahal and One of the Most Powerful Mughal Emperors
Outside the fort, he built the Jami Masjid, the largest mosque in India. However, it is for the Taj Mahalwhich he built as a memorial to his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal, that he is most often remembered. The peasants had been impoverished by heavy taxes and by the time his son Aurangzeb ascended the throne, the empire was in a state of insolvency.
As a result, opportunities for grand architectural projects were severely limited.
Though the design was inspired by the Taj Mahal, it is half its size, the proportions compressed and the detail clumsily executed. The history of Mughal architecture really starts with Akbar. Just as Akbar built up an extensive empire on the goodwill of the Hindus, in the same way he utilised local talent and took inspiration from Indian architecture. One of the earliest buildings built is the Tomb of Humayun, in Delhi.
This splendid tomb, designed by a Persian Architect Malik Mirza Ghiyas and executed by Indian craftsmen and masons, is a fine example of the synthesis of Indian-Persian traditions. Jahangir had fine artistic sense but he was more fond of painting than architecture. Two important buildings were raised.
Shah Jahan - Wikipedia
Shah Jahan and architecture: These buildings are extremely beautiful and soft. Shah Jahan mostly made use of marble in place of red stone. With a view to enhance the beauty and effect of the ceilings, he made full use of gold, silver, precious and coloured stones.
At several places, the pictures of trees, animal scenes and other flora and fauna have been depicted. Aurangzeb regretted this and harboured feelings that Shikoh had manipulated the situation to serve his own ends. Aurangbad's two jagirs land grants were moved there as a consequence of his return and, because the Deccan was a relatively impoverished area, this caused him to lose out financially. So poor was the area that grants were required from Malwa and Gujarat in order to maintain the administration and the situation caused ill-feeling between father and son.
Shah Jahan insisted that things could be improved if Aurangzeb made efforts to develop cultivation.
Murshid Quli Khan organised a survey of agricultural land and a tax assessment on what it produced. To increase revenue, Murshid Quli Khan granted loans for seed, livestock, and irrigation infrastructure. The Deccan returned to prosperity,   but too slowly to satisfy the emperor. As an adjunct to resolving the financial difficulties, the proposal would also extend Mughal influence by accruing more lands. Again, he was to feel that Dara had exerted influence on his father: The four sons of Shah Jahan all held governorships during their father's reign.
The emperor favoured the eldest, Dara Shukoh. There was no Mughal tradition of primogeniturethe systematic passing of rule, upon an emperor's death, to his eldest son. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf say, "To focus on divergent philosophies neglects the fact that Dara was a poor general and leader. It also ignores the fact that factional lines in the succession dispute were not, by and large, shaped by ideology. Jahanara, certainly, interceded at various times on behalf of all of the princes and was well-regarded by Aurangzeb even though she shared the religious outlook of Dara.
Rumours of the death of Shah Jahan abounded and the younger sons were concerned that Dara might be hiding it for Machiavellian reasons.
Thus, they took action: Shah Shuja In Bengalwhere he had been governor sincePrince Muhammad Shuja crowned himself King at RajMahal, and brought his cavalry, artillery and river flotilla upriver towards Agra. It is not known whether these preparations were made in the mistaken belief that the rumours of death were true or whether the challengers were just taking advantage of the situation.
After regaining some of his health, Shah Jahan moved to Agra and Dara urged him to send forces to challenge Shah Shuja and Murad, who had declared themselves rulers in their respective territories. While Shah Shuja was defeated at Banares in Februarythe army sent to deal with Murad discovered to their surprise that he and Aurangzeb had combined their forces,  the two brothers having agreed to partition the empire once they had gained control of it.
Shuja was being chased through Bihar and the victory of Aurangzeb proved this to be a poor decision by Dara Shikoh, who now had a defeated force on one front and a successful force unnecessarily pre-occupied on another. Realising that his recalled Bihar forces would not arrive at Agra in time to resist the emboldened Aurangzeb's advance, Dara scrambled to form alliances in order but found that Aurangzeb had already courted key potential candidates.
When Dara's disparate, hastily concocted army clashed with Aurangzeb's well-disciplined, battle-hardened force at the Battle of Samugarh in late May, neither Dara's men nor his generalship were any match for Aurangzeb. Dara had also become over-confident in his own abilities and, by ignoring advice not to lead in battle while his father was alive, he cemented the idea that he had usurped the throne.
Murad was executed on 4 Decemberostensibly for the murder of the diwan of Gujarat sometime earlier.
The allegation was encouraged by Aurangzeb, who caused the diwan's son to seek retribution for the death under the principles of Sharia law. Aurangzeb offered Shah Shuja the governorship of Bengal. This move had the effect of isolating Dara Shikoh and causing more troops to defect to Aurangzeb. Shah Shuja, who had declared himself emperor in Bengal began to annex more territory and this prompted Aurangzeb to march from Punjab with a new and large army that fought during the Battle of Khajwawhere Shah Shuja and his chain-mail armoured war elephants were routed by the forces loyal to Aurangzeb.
Shah Shuja then fled to Arakan in present-day Burmawhere he was executed by the local rulers. Aurangzeb claimed that Dara was no longer a Muslim[ citation needed ] and accused him of poisoning the Mughal Grand Vizier Saadullah Khan.
After a series of battles, defeats and retreats, Dara was betrayed by one of his generals, who arrested and bound him.
InAurangzeb arranged his formal coronation in Delhi. On 10 AugustDara was executed on grounds of apostasy and his head was sent to Shahjahan. Shah Jahan was cared for by Jahanara and died in Between andthe number of Hindu officials in the Mughal administration rose by half, many of them Marathas and Rajputs.
- Difference Between Akbar and Shahjahan
- MUGHAL SHAHS OF THE 17TH CENTURY: JAHANGIR, SHAH JAHAN AND AURANGZEB
- Mughal Empire
His increasing employment of Hindus and Shia Muslims was deemed controversial at the time, with several of his fellow Sunni Muslim officials petitioning against it, which he rejected, and responded, "What connection have earthly affairs with religion?