Jordan reels under pressure of the street - and Gulf monarchies
Relations between Jordan and neighbouring Saudi Arabia have not always run smoothly, but as progresses, the continuing rise of Iran as a political. Israel and Saudi Arabia: The relationship emerging into the open scenes, a complex system of public signalling is under way between Saudi Arabia and Israel. Egypt and Jordan already have a kind of peace with Israel. Abstract. A special issue on the relationship between the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Saudi Arabia. It highlights the achievements made during the reigns .
Jordan–Saudi Arabia relations - Wikipedia
However, theirs is not a balanced relationship. Saudi Arabia's oil wealth, although depleted by recent oil price slumps, makes it a force in regional diplomacy, while Jordan's politics have been shaped by its reliance on financial support from its allies—notably the US and the Gulf Co-operation Council GCC states, foremost among them Saudi Arabia. However, the slump in oil prices since has seen inflows from the Gulf diminish, and the relationship has also been affected at times by political differences.
The two states, although both monarchies, have very different domestic political landscapes.
Saudi Arabia's wealth has allowed it to buy a degree of domestic political loyalty and stability from most of its subjects although it still has domestic problems with a sizeable Shia minority and with radical Sunni jihadi elements. Jordan, particularly since its debt crisis, has at least in theory been engaged on a steady—if glacially slow—path towards greater but limited democratisation.
In this it has been supported by its international allies in the West, keen to see its survival as a moderate force in the region, and one that has conveniently shielded its Gulf Arab neighbours physically from the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.
Call to boost trade ties between Saudi Arabia and Jordan | Arab News
Jordan and Saudi Arabia also differ on their approach to social development, with Jordan's monarchy keen to embrace modern social norms, including gender equality although this is often resisted by traditional tribal elementswhile its neighbour holds more tightly to old custom.
Concerns over Iran bring countries closer, despite different development paths These differences between Jordan and Saudi Arabia have been superseded by the rise of Iranian influence in the region. King Abdullah of Jordan was the first regional leader to speak openly of the dangers of a growing Shia arc of influence in the region, but that was when Iranian influence was largely restricted to Iraq and its support of a Shia group, Hizbullah, in Lebanon. Despite his concerns, King Abdullah tried to maintain good relations with Iran and supported the international nuclear accord with the country in Relations with Syria improved briefly following the October War, but deteriorated again by the late s.
Syria apparently feared Hussein's close ties with Washington would involve Jordan in the Camp David process. When religiously inspired disturbances broke out in Aleppo and other Syrian cities during the winter ofthe government immediately suspected--and accused--Jordan of complicity. In addition, Syria had a bitter rivalry with Iraq. Damascus perceived Amman's support of Iraq in that country's war with Iran initiated by an Iraqi invasion of Iran in September as confirmation of conspiracy theories about Baghdad trying to encircle Syria.
Jordan–Saudi Arabia relations
By the end ofrelations between Jordan and Syria had deteriorated to such an extent that military clashes appeared possible along the common border where both countries had massed troops.
The escalating tension eventually was defused by Saudi Arabian diplomatic intervention, although relations remained strained.
Jordan broke diplomatic relations with Syria incharging Damascus with plotting to assassinate its prime minister and kidnapping its ambassador to Lebanon.
For the next five years, the two neighbors were estranged. Amman accused Syria of assisting radical Palestinian groups who carried out several political killings of Jordanian diplomats in Europe and the Middle East.
Jordan reels under pressure of the street - and Gulf monarchies
Tentative efforts to improve relations in were aborted by Syrian denunciation of Jordan's resumption of relations with Egypt. Finally, in the fall and winter ofSaudi Arabia mediated reconciliation talks that led to a restoration of diplomatic ties.
In Maythe Jordanian prime minister became the first highranking official from Amman to visit Syria since Relations between Jordan and Syria gradually improved since then. Jordan maintained cordial relations with the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in The level of their assistance, especially that from Kuwait, has fallen, however, since Thousands of Jordanians and Palestinians holding Jordanian passports continued to work in the Persian Gulf in business, government, education, and engineering.Jordan, Saudi relations come under strain
The remittances they sent to their families in Jordan, especially those living in the refugee camps, represented a significant proportion of Jordan's foreign exchange earnings. The Persian Gulf countries also were markets for Jordanian agricultural and consumer exports.
Jordan's relations with the other Arab states--excepting Libya- -were generally good in Tensions existed over economic policy between Jordan and Morocco, however, as both countries exported phosphates. The amount of Jordan's reserves of these minerals and the value of its exports were significantly less than those of Morocco, a major international producer. Jordan, which traditionally exported its phosphates to Southeast Asia, complained that Morocco had stolen its Asian markets between and by deliberately selling its phosphates at prices lower than it cost Jordan to mine and transport the minerals.
Jordan had a history of tense relations with Libya, deriving from Libyan support since for Palestinian guerrilla groups opposed to Hussein. The most serious incident between the two countries occurred in Februarywhen the Jordanian embassy in Tripoli was destroyed during demonstrations organized by the Libyan government to protest Hussein's support of Arafat and his call for reconciliation with Egypt. Jordan broke diplomatic relations following this episode.