Islam in China - Wikipedia
(For more comparisons with U.S. Muslims, see Appendix A.) But religion of the distinction between the two main branches of Islam, Sunni and Shia. .. of Sunnis and Shias, see the Pew Forum's report “Mapping the. Sunni and Shia Muslims have lived peacefully together for centuries. Islam with suspicion, and extremist Sunnis have portrayed Shias as heretics .. and cursing the first three caliphs and Aisha, one of Mohammed's wives. . The conflicts in Iraq and Syria threaten to redraw the map of the Middle East. He recounts the experience to me in his living room as his wife, Heidi, an on fire, January 28, , Ajrami watched with others from this small Muslim community. .. Any mapping of U.S. Muslims must include black American .. do it by building power, building relationships, building alliances,” he says.
By accepting it, your welfare will be assured in this world and in the Hereafter.
Who among you will support me in carrying out this momentous duty? Who will share the burden of this work with me? Who will respond to my call? Who will become my vicegerent, my deputy and my wazir?
Why Saudi Arabia and Iran are bitter rivals
Muhammad told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Perhaps someone older than you might respond to my call. Once again, Ali was the only one to respond, and again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad then asked the members of Banu Hashim a third time. Ali was still the only volunteer. This time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad "drew [Ali] close, pressed him to his heart, and said to the assembly: Listen to him and obey his commands.
Let all listen to his words, and obey him. While returning from the Hajj pilgrimage, the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered all the Muslims who were with him and gave a long sermon. This sermon included Muhammad's declaration that "to whomsoever I am MawlaAli is also their Mawla.
Shia Muslims believe this event to be the official appointment of Ali as Muhammad's successor. Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by God, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,] the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master Mawla [a]then Ali is his master Mawla ; and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will Wasiyyiwhose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from God, the mighty and the majestic.
Further, according to Shias, the combination of these words proves that Ali's leadership, as described by Muhammad in this sermon, is both a religious leadership as well as a political leadership, as the meanings of these words indicate.
Umar was reportedly the first to give the oath of allegiance to Ali. Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammad's appointment of Ali as his successor. Ali did not accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr and refused to pledge allegiance to him. This is indicated in both Sunni and Shia sahih and authentic Hadith. Ibn Qutaybaha 9th-century Sunni Islamic scholar narrates of Ali: I am the servant of God and the brother of the Messenger of God.
I am thus more worthy of this office than you. You have seized this office from the Ansar using your tribal relationship to the Prophet as an argument against them. While there is broad agreement on the core tenets of Islam, however, Muslims across the 39 countries and territories surveyed differ significantly in their levels of religious commitment, openness to multiple interpretations of their faith and acceptance of various sects and movements.
Some of these differences are apparent at a regional level. For example, at least eight-in-ten Muslims in every country surveyed in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia and South Asia say that religion is very important in their lives. Across the Middle East and North Africa, roughly six-in-ten or more say the same.
For more comparisons with U. Muslims, see Appendix A. But religion plays a much less central role for some Muslims, particularly in nations that only recently have emerged from communism. No more than half of those surveyed in Russia, the Balkans and the former Soviet republics of Central Asia say religion is very important in their lives. Generational differences are also apparent.
Across the Middle East and North Africa, for example, Muslims 35 and older tend to place greater emphasis on religion and to exhibit higher levels of religious commitment than do Muslims between the ages of 18 and In all seven countries surveyed in the region, older Muslims are more likely to report that they attend mosque, read the Quran also spelled Koran on a daily basis and pray multiple times each day. Outside of the Middle East and North Africa, the generational differences are not as sharp.
And the survey finds that in one country — Russia — the general pattern is reversed and younger Muslims are significantly more observant than their elders. There are also differences in how male and female Muslims practice their faith. In most of the 39 countries surveyed, men are more likely than women to attend mosque.
This is especially true in Central Asia and South Asia, where majorities of women in most of the countries surveyed say they never attend mosque. However, this disparity appears to result from cultural norms or local customs that constrain women from attending mosque, rather than from differences in the importance that Muslim women and men place on religion.
In most countries surveyed, for example, women are about as likely as men to read or listen to readings from the Quran on a daily basis. And there are no consistent differences between men and women when it comes to the frequency of prayer or participation in annual rites, such as almsgiving and fasting during Ramadan.
Sectarian Differences The survey asked Muslims whether they identify with various branches of Islam and about their attitudes toward other branches or subgroups. While these sectarian differences are important in some countries, the survey suggests that many Muslims around the world either do not know or do not care about them.
Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa tend to be most keenly aware of the distinction between the two main branches of Islam, Sunni and Shia. In many cases, even greater percentages do not believe that some practices common among Shias, such as visiting the shrines of saints, are acceptable as part of Islamic tradition.
Sunnis and Shia: Islam's ancient schism - BBC News
Only in Lebanon and Iraq — nations where sizable populations of Sunnis and Shias live side by side — do large majorities of Sunnis recognize Shias as fellow Muslims and accept their distinctive practices as part of Islam.
Outside of the Middle East and North Africa, the distinction between Sunni and Shia appears to be of lesser consequence.
Opinion also varies as to whether Sufis — members of religious orders who emphasize the mystical dimensions of Islam — belong to the Islamic faith. Views differ, too, with regard to certain practices traditionally associated with particular Sufi orders. For example, reciting poetry or singing in praise of God is generally accepted in most of the countries where the question was asked.
In 32 of the 39 countries surveyed, half or more Muslims say there is only one correct way to understand the teachings of Islam. This view, however, is far from universal. In sub-Saharan Africa, at least one-in-five Muslims agree. In South Asia, Southeast Asia and across Southern and Eastern Europe, at least one-in-six in every country surveyed believe Islam is open to multiple interpretations.Relationship between husband and wife
In some Central Asian countries, slightly fewer Muslims say their faith can be subject to more than one interpretation. For more comparisons with previous surveys of U. What is a Median? The median is the middle number in a list of numbers sorted from highest to lowest. On many questions in this report, medians are reported for groups of countries to help readers see regional patterns in religious beliefs and practices. For a region with an odd number of countries, the median on a particular question is the middle spot among the countries surveyed in that region.
For regions with an even number of countries, the median is computed as the average of the two countries at the middle of the list e. By contrast, figures reported for individual countries represent the total percentage for the category reported. Core Beliefs Traditionally, Muslims adhere to several articles of faith. Among the most widely known are: Although the survey asked only respondents in sub-Saharan Africa whether they consider the Quran to be the word of God, the findings in that region indicate broad assent.
The survey asked respondents in all 39 countries whether they believe in the existence of angels. In Central Asia and sub-Saharan Africa more than seven-in-ten also say angels are real.
And indeed, the survey finds that the concept of predestination, or fate, is widely accepted among Muslims in most parts of the world. The survey also asked about the existence of heaven and hell.
Across the six regions included in the study, a median of more than seven-in-ten Muslims say that paradise awaits those who have lived righteous lives, while a median of at least two-thirds say hell is the ultimate fate of those who do not live righteously and do not repent.
The Five Pillars include: