Prejudice and Discrimination
There are many different types of people in the world. What happens when What is a Stereotype? - Definition, Function & . group of people? Watch this lesson to find out about stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. the most prevalent view, the Resolution on Prejudice, Stereotypes, and, Discrimination of the American Psychological Association (). In addition to our stereotypes, we may also develop prejudice—an unjustifiable Figure Relationships among social groups are influenced by the ABCs of.
The principles of social psychology, including the ABCs—affect, behavior, and cognition—apply to the study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and social psychologists have expended substantial research efforts studying these concepts Figure The cognitive component in our perceptions of group members is the stereotype —the positive or negative beliefs that we hold about the characteristics of social groups.
In addition to our stereotypes, we may also develop prejudice —an unjustifiable negative attitude toward an outgroup or toward the members of that outgroup. Prejudice can take the form of disliking, anger, fear, disgust, discomfort, and even hatred—the kind of affective states that can lead to behavior such as the gay bashing you just read about.
Our stereotypes and our prejudices are problematic because they may create discrimination —unjustified negative behaviors toward members of outgroups based on their group membership. Stereotypes and prejudice have a pervasive and often pernicious influence on our responses to others, and also in some cases on our own behaviors. To take one example, social psychological research has found that our stereotypes may in some cases lead to stereotype threat —performance decrements that are caused by the knowledge of cultural stereotypes.
In one particularly disturbing line of research about the influence of prejudice on behaviors, Joshua Correll and his colleagues had White participants participate in an experiment in which they viewed photographs of White and Black people on a computer screen.
Across the experiment, the photographs showed the people holding either a gun or something harmless such as a cell phone.
Discrimination is a major societal problem because it is so pervasive, takes so many forms, and has such negative effects on so many people. Even people who are paid to be unbiased may discriminate. Price and Wolfers found that White players in National Basketball Association games received fewer fouls when more of the referees present in the game were White, and Black players received fewer fouls when more of the referees present in the game where Black. The implication is—whether they know it or not—the referees were discriminating on the basis of race.
Perhaps you then tried to get past these beliefs and to react to the person more on the basis of his or her individual characteristics.
- Prejudice and Discrimination
- Chapter 12: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
And yet, despite our best intentions, we may end up making friends only with people who are similar to us and perhaps even avoiding people whom we see as different. In this chapter, we will study the processes by which we develop, maintain, and make use of our stereotypes and our prejudices.
We will consider the negative outcomes of those beliefs on the targets of our perceptions, and we will consider ways that we might be able to change those beliefs, or at least help us stop acting upon them.
Stereotypes, Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination, Oh My!
The influence of stereotypes on decisions to shoot. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37 6— Across the thin blue line: Police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 6— Stereotypes and prejudice create workplace discrimination. The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action. The effect of Social Norms on Prejudice Minard investigated how social norms influence prejudice and discrimination.
The behavior of black and white miners in a town in the southern United States was observed, both above and below ground. Below ground, where the social norm was friendly behavior towards work colleagues, 80 of the white miners were friendly towards the black miners.
Above ground, where the social norm was prejudiced behavior by whites to blacks, this dropped to The white miners were conforming to different norms above and below ground.
Stereotypes, Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination, Oh My! - Psych Learning Curve
Whether or not prejudice is shown depends on the social context within which behavior takes place. Pettigrew also investigated the role of conformity in prejudice. He investigated the idea that people who tended to be more conformist would also be more prejudiced, and found this to be true of white South African students.
Similarly, he accounted for the higher levels of prejudice against black people in the southern United States than in the north in terms of the greater social acceptability of this kind of prejudice in the south.
A study by Rogers and Frantz found that immigrants to Rhodesia now Zimbabwe became more prejudiced the longer they had been in the country. They gradually conformed more to the prevailing cultural norm of prejudice against the black population.
Chapter Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination – Principles of Social Psychology
Conformity to social norms, then, may offer an explanation for prejudice in some cases. At the same time, norms change over time, so this can only go some way towards explaining prejudice. Race relationships in the Pocahontas coal field.
Journal of Social Issues, 8 1 ,