cooperative counselor-client relationship (therapeutic alliance). ▫ The focus on social Adlerian counseling emphasizes prevention, optimism and hope, resilience and . characterized as cooperative, collaborative, egalitarian, optimistic, and. Adlerian therapy is a short-term, goal-oriented, and positive psychodynamic therapy Engagement, or creating a collaborative relationship with your therapist that individual behavior must be explored within the context of a client's sense of. Classical Adlerian psychotherapy may involve individual psychotherapy, couple therapy, . The overall goal of the therapy is to establish a relationship between client and community in order not only to challenge the client's unhealthy and The client goes through a first stage which is characterized by social interest.
Unconditional positive regard A warm, positive, and accepting attitude that includes no evaluation or moral judgment Accurate empathy, whereby the therapist conveys an accurate understanding of the client's world through skilled, active listening According to Carson, the client-centered therapist believes that Each individual exists in a private world of experience in which the individual is the center.
The most basic striving of an individual is toward the maintenance, enhancement, and actualization of the self. An individual reacts to situations in terms of the way he perceives them, in ways consistent with his self-concept and view of the world.
An individual's inner tendencies are toward health and wholeness; under normal conditions, a person behaves in rational and constructive ways and chooses pathways toward personal growth and self-actualization Carson, A client-centered therapist focuses on the client's self-actualizing core and the positive forces of the client i. The client should also understand the unconditional nature of the therapist's acceptance.
This type of therapy aims not to interpret the client's unconscious motivation or conflicts but to reflect what the client feels, to overcome resistance through consistent acceptance, and to help replace negative attitudes with positive ones. Rogers' techniques are particularly useful for the therapist who is trying to address a substance-abusing client's denial and motivate her for further treatment.
Response to the case study A client-centered therapist would engage in reflective listening, accepting the client and her past, and clarifying her current situation and feelings. As Sandra developed trust in the therapist, he would begin to emphasize her positive characteristics and her potential to make meaningful choices to become the person she wants to and can become.
Another goal of therapy would be to help her develop sufficient insight so that she can make choices that reflect more closely the values and principles to which she aspires. For example, she may want to tell her husband about her symptoms and try to strengthen her marriage. If Sandra began to feel guilt about her past as a prostitute, the therapist would demonstrate appreciation of her struggle to accept that aspect of herself, highlighting the fact that she did eventually choose to leave it.
He may note that she did the best she could at that time and underscore her current commitment to choose a better life. Sandra would be supported and accepted, not criticized.
She would be encouraged to express her fear of death and the effect this fear has on her. This might be the first time in her life that someone has been unconditionally accepting of her or focused on her strengths rather than her failings.
She apparently has the ability to solve problems, which is reflected by her return to therapy and her insight about needing help. By being understood and accepted, her self-esteem and sense of hope would increase and her shame would decrease. She would feel supported in making critical choices in her life and more confident to resume her recovery. Narrative Therapy Narrative therapy emerges from social constructivism, which assumes that events in life are inherently ambiguous, and the ways in which people construct meaning are largely influenced by family, culture, and society.
Narrative therapy assumes that people's lives, including their relationships, are shaped by language and the knowledge and meaning contained in the stories they hear and tell about their lives. Recent approaches to understanding psychological growth have emphasized using storytelling and mythology to enhance self-awareness see Campbell, ; Feinstein and Krippner, ; Middelkoop, Parker and Horton argue that "Studies in a variety of disciplines have suggested that all cognition is inherently metaphorical" and note "the vital role that symbolism plays in perception" Parker and Horton,p.
The authors offer the "perspective that the universe is made up of stories rather than atoms" and suggest, "Myth and ritual are vehicles through which the value-impregnated beliefs and ideas that we live by, and for, are preserved and transmitted" p. From this perspective, narratives reveal a deeper truth about the meanings of our experience than a factual account of the events themselves. As Feinstein and Krippner note, "Personal mythologies give meaning to the past, understanding to the present, and direction to the future" Feinstein and Krippner,p.
When people tell and retell their life stories with the help of a therapistthe stories evolve into increasingly meaningful and healing constructions. As narrative therapists listen to the stories clients tell, they assist them by identifying alternative ways of understanding events in their lives.
Thus, they help clients to assume authorship of their lives in order to rewrite their stories by breaking patterns and developing new solutions. Narrative therapy helps clients resolve their problems by Helping them become aware of how events in their lives have assumed significance Allowing them to distance themselves from impoverishing stories by giving new meaning to their past Helping them to see the problem of substance abuse as a separate, influential entity rather than an inseparable part of who they are note the discrepancy between this and the AA member's statement, "My name is Jane, and I am an alcoholic" Collaboratively identifying exceptions to self-defeating patterns Encouraging them to challenge destructive cultural influences they have internalized Challenging clients to rewrite their own lives according to alternative and preferred scripts Narrative therapy can be a powerful approach for engaging clients in describing their lives and providing them with opportunities to gain insight into their life stories and to change those "scripts" they find lacking.
Storytelling is a way of articulating a subjective, experiential truth, and it is important for the therapist and client to become aware of the significance of the story being told and its potential therapeutic value.
Narrative approaches to psychological healing have been used across various cultures for thousands of years Katz,but they have often been overlooked by mainstream mental health professionals. Contemporary approaches to narrative therapy recognize the importance of understanding how human experience becomes meaningful.
A person's life is influenced by the narratives he constructs, which are in turn influenced by the narratives of those around him. Thus, therapy is viewed as a collaborative attempt to increase clients' awareness of the ways in which events in their lives become significant. In effect, the therapist says, "Let's be curious about your story together. In substance abuse treatment, for example, a client might be asked, "How has substance abuse influenced your life? In an effort to be understood, clients sometimes tell a story as a way of educating the therapist to their culture or lifestyle.
Therefore, it is essential for the therapist to appreciate the unique influences positive and negative of the client's specific cultural experiences and identity. Often these stories do not constitute sharing in its usual meaning. When listening to them, one may sense that these stories have been told repeatedly over the years. It is through this sense of storytelling--as oral history--that we reveal our values, expectations, hopes, and fears.
For the therapist, a story provides insight into the clients' responses, their need to act on the responses, and their desire to be heard or understood.
A story can become a way for a client to become both participant and observer in order to find new solutions or break down barriers. Response to the case study The therapist may initially ask Sandra to describe some of the important transitional moments in her life.
These may include examples of loss of innocence occurring early in her life, her experience of school, circumstances and influences surrounding prostitution and drug use, the experience of being supported by her husband, and internal resources that enabled her to enter treatment and maintain sobriety.
The therapist would ask questions about expectations she felt from family, society, and herself.
Classical Adlerian psychotherapy - Wikipedia
She may be asked questions like, "How did addiction interfere with your attempts to be a good mother" or "How has fear contributed to your recent relapse and feelings of hopelessness? It would be helpful to remind her that recent advances in medical treatments mean that AIDS may not be the death sentence it was once thought to be. Other important questions can help her to begin to create an alternative story: As Sandra talks about the people and events in her life, such as her childhood and her children, she can discover some of her feelings, as well as the personal meaning in her story.
She can experience a great deal of healing through the therapist's feedback and questions that uncover the desires and emotions beneath her story. A continued focus on identifying, practicing, or even imagining changes in her story can begin the process of developing new ways of living. Transpersonal Therapy Transpersonal psychology emerged as a "fourth force" in psychology in the late s and has strong roots in humanistic and existential psychologies, Jungian analysis, the East-West dialog, and ancient wisdom traditions.
Classical Adlerian psychotherapy
Transpersonal therapy may be thought of as a bridge between psychological and spiritual practice. A transpersonal approach emphasizes development of the individual beyond, but including, the ego. It acknowledges the human spiritual quest and recognizes the human striving for unity, ultimate truth, and profound freedom.
It cultivates intuitive ways of knowing that complement rational and sensory modes. This approach also recognizes the potential for growth inherent in "peak" experiences and other shifts in consciousness. Although grounded in psychological theory, transpersonal practitioners also tend to incorporate perspectives from ancient wisdom traditions. The practice of transpersonal therapy is defined more by its orientation and scope rather than by a particular set of techniques or methods Boorstein, Wittine suggests five postulates for a transpersonal psychotherapy Wittine, Transpersonal psychotherapy is an approach to healing and growth that recognizes the centrality of the self in the therapeutic process.
Transpersonal psychotherapy values wholeness of being and self-realization on all levels of the spectrum of identity i. Transpersonal psychotherapy is a process of awakening from a limited personal identity to expanded universal knowledge of self.
Transpersonal psychotherapy makes use of the healing restorative nature of subjective awareness and intuition in the process of awakening. In transpersonal psychotherapy, the therapeutic relationship is a vehicle for the process of awakening in both client and therapist. Integrating insights and practices in everyday life is the goal of every therapy. Bringing the transpersonal dimension to the forefront may involve the following: Exploration of "inner voices" including those of a higher self that provides guidance for growth of the individual Rowan, Refinement of intuition or nonrational knowing Practice of creativity in "formal" art or informal personal relationships encounters Meditation Cultivation of mindfulness Use of dreams and imagery These techniques may be taught and supported explicitly in the therapy session.
At times, a therapist may directly cultivate shifts in consciousness e. This may provide clients with a skill they can practice on their own; initiating such activity represents a potential for brief intervention. Transpersonal therapy recognizes the need for basic psychological development to be integrated with spiritual growth Nelson, Without such integration there is danger of "spiritual bypassing," where issues of basic psychological functioning are avoided in the name of spiritual development.
In other words, the basic psychological work should be undertaken first. Substance abuse disorders may be seen broadly as an attempt to fill a spiritual void. They may also be understood as a means for the ego to defend itself against a natural drive for growth. If growth were to occur, the ego might find its dominance relinquished.
Addiction, like spirituality, also raises questions of surrender May, In a culture and a psychology that are dominated by issues of rational ego control, what is the role of constructive surrender regularly described in spiritual traditions?
How does constructive surrender become destructive and distorted in substance dependency? In addition, substance abuse may be understood as a means for shifting out of a normal waking state of consciousness.
This may be an attempt to fulfill an innate drive Weil, for nonrational consciousness. Response to the case study As the existentialists remind us, there is nothing like death to rivet our attention.
A glimpse of death--for example, seeing the aftermath of a serious car crash--reminds the witness of how valuable life is, bringing up other issues as well.
Sandra is now confronted with death due to AIDS. This opportunity to face death and life squarely provides a chance to reconsider and reprioritize her life. In fact, it could be argued that the best catalyst to brief therapy may be a death sentence precisely because it has the potential to wake up an individual. In many respects, helping the client wake from habitual, mechanical routines that are often based on ego protection and move toward an appreciation that the individual is not bound to or defined by a limited ego, is the goal of transpersonal therapy.
This can be seen as a transformation of identity. Many inspiring instances of people facing death, including death through AIDS, have shown that emergent spirituality can change the quality and direction of existence very quickly.
For treatment, the basic sharing of these experiences with a group of others in a similar predicament often quickly moves the client beyond isolation and a sense of self-separateness to connect intimately with others who understand her situation. This community may not only bring comfort and support but also a deep sense of communion with humanity. In this instance, breaking through the shell of isolation may enable Sandra to begin to make new connections with her family and with herself.
A sense of interconnection, a central postulate and experience in the wisdom traditions, may replace her perceived isolation. Sandra may use this opportunity of facing possible death to begin to encounter and let go of such feelings as guilt, shame, disappointment, and anger that have kept her life less satisfying than it could be.
Accessing the imaginal through art or dreams, for example, can provide a clear and symbolic expression of unresolved issues. The use of rituals or rites-of-passage inspired by the wisdom traditions can provide some catalyst for shifting her consciousness through forgiveness and release. The therapist may engage in a wide variety of methods e. For Sandra, this experience may be seen as an opportunity for practicing love and forgiveness, moving out from behind rigid self-separateness, facing fears, and transforming her self-definition.
Gestalt Therapy Gestalt theory holds that the analysis of parts can never provide an understanding of the whole. In a therapeutic setting, this approach opposes the notion that human beings can be understood entirely through a rational, mechanistic, scientific process. The proponents of Gestalt therapy insist that the experiential world of a client can be understood only through that individual's direct experience and description.
Gestalt therapists seek to help their clients gain awareness of themselves and the world. Discomfort arises from leaving elements and experiences of the psyche incomplete-- primarily past relationships and intrapsychic conflicts that are unresolved, which Perls calls "unfinished business" Perls, According to Gestalt theory The organism should be seen as a whole physical behavior is an important component, as is a client's mental and emotional life.
Being in the "here and now" i.
How is more important than why i. The individual's inner experience is central.
For Gestalt therapists the "power is in the present" Polster and Polster, This means that the "now" is the only place where awareness, responsibility, and change can occur.
Therefore, the process of therapy is to help the client make contact with the present moment. Rather than seeking detailed intellectual analysis, the Gestalt therapist looks to create a "safe emergency" in the therapeutic encounter. Perls' invocation to "lose your mind and come to your senses" implies that a feeling-level, "here and now" experience is the optimal condition for therapeutic work.
This may be accomplished in a fairly short amount of time by explicitly asking clients to pay attention e. How does your fear feel to you? The therapist may point out how the client could be avoiding the present moment through inauthentic "games" or ways of relating such as "talking about" feelings rather than experiencing them directly. Clients may be asked to exaggerate certain expressions e.
These may all serve the goal of helping clients move into the immediacy of their experience rather than remaining distant from it through intellectualization or substance abuse. The term contact in Gestalt refers to meeting oneself and what is other than oneself.
He stated that individuals aren't just a product of their situations; they are creators of their situations. A person's feelings, beliefs and behaviors all work together to make each individual unique. Another area of focus on was the concept of fictions. It is believed that fictions are conscious and non-conscious ideas that are not necessarily aligned with reality, but serve as a guide to cope with reality.
People create fictions as ways of seeing themselves, others around them and their environments and that people do this to guide their feelings, thoughts, and actions. Another concept is finality.
This is the belief that there is only one organized force, a fictionate final goal. Fictionate final goal has been established in early childhood and is present for the rest of a person's life. It is mostly unconscious and influences behavior. With fictionate final goal, questions are asked more along the lines of "what for" or "where to" instead of "why" or "where from".
The goal and purpose of a behavior is looked at instead of finding the cause of a behavior. The final cause of the behavior is the focus, which is where fictionate final goal is termed. Social interest is another area that contributes to classical Adlerian psychotherapy. He believes individuals are social beings. The way an individual acts with other people is greatly important in terms of their psychological health.
Social interest means feeling a part of a family, group or community. An important concept related to social interest is the ability to feel empathy.
Showing empathy is a way to connect with others. He was the second oldest child of six. He was often sick as a child, and once he became knowledgeable of death, he decided to become a physician some day. Adler's childhood sickness made him appear weak and inferior.
A teacher recommended that he quit school to become an apprentice shoemaker. Adler's family objected to this and Alfred eventually went to medical school and graduated from the University of Vienna with his medical degree specializing in ophthalmology.
Alfred met his future wife, Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein, in a series of political meetings which revolved around the current rising socialist movement. The two were married in Adler started a private practice which slowly switched to internal medicine. It was here that he observed that many of his patients had diseases that could be traced to social situation origins.
Adler's first publication discussed how the social conditions of where people worked influenced diseases and disease processes. The therapy, however, is created by the therapist on a six-phase process. The overall goal of the therapy is to establish a relationship between client and community in order not only to challenge the client's unhealthy and unrealistic thoughts of the world, but also to challenge them to replace self-defeating behaviors for ones that will lead to a more positive and healthy lifestyle.
The first stage emphasizes empathy and relationships. The therapist provides warmth, acceptance, and generate hope while giving reassurance and encouragement to the client. The second stage in this phase is focused on gathering information on the client. Early childhood memories and influences are sought out as well as details that provide information on how the client faces life problems. This is done through two stages of clarification and encouragement.
Therapists clarify any vague thinking with Socratic questioning and evaluate the consequences of various actions or ideas. They help the client correct inappropriate ideas about his or her self and others. Interpretation and recognition, as well as knowing are the focus of the Insight phase. This stage integrates many Freudian ideas such as dreams, daydreams, and recollections. They know and accept what they need to change.
Change is first addressed through the stage of an Emotional Breakthrough. This can be achieved through the use of role playing, guided imagery and narration. The next stage is Doing Differently.
The client will break old patterns and change their attitude. This is achieved through creating steps which are based on abstract ideas. The last stage in this phase is Reinforcement. The therapist will encourage all efforts made by the client to promote change.