Fante Confederacy - WikiVisually
Just over one hundred years ago, the urge for self-reliance leading to independence took concrete form in the formation of the New Fante. The Fante Confederation was bigger than the Fante tribes. When the coastal people saw that the British were failing to offer them help in. War between the Asante and the coastal Fante Confederacy would lead the Torrane tried to negotiate with the Asante, but failed due to Fante for fifty years to build good relations with the Fante, whose refugees had been.
Okomfo Anokye declared the stool to be symbolic of the new Asante Union, the newly declared Ashanti union subsequently waged war against and defeated Denkyira.
History of slavery — The history of slavery spans nearly every culture, nationality, and religion from ancient times to the present day. However the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places, Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, as it is developed as a system of social stratification.
Fante confederacy | African history [late 17th century] | 572233.info
Slavery was known in the very oldest civilizations such as Sumer in Mesopotamia which dates back as far as BC, the Byzantine—Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the taking of large numbers of Christian slaves. Slavery became common within much of Europe and the British Isles during the Dark Ages, the Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, British, Arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade, especially after During the — Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery, evidence emerged in the late s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in West Africa, see the chocolate and slavery article.
Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures, however, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery requires economic surpluses and a population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, about 11, years ago.
Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, the Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa.
In Britain, which extensive, although mainly coastal, colonial territories on the African continent, made the international slave trade illegal. In Senegambia, between andclose to one-third of the population was enslaved, in early Islamic states of the Western Sudan, including Ghana, Mali, Segou, and Songhai, about a third of the population was enslaved.
In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves.
Between and from one- to two-thirds of the population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved, the Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2, slaves in the early s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million 5.
Each town had a stool, which served as the object of Ga ritual. Accra became the most prominent Ga-Dangme towns and is now the heartbeat, the Ga people were originally farmers, but today fishing and trading in imported goods are the principal occupations.
Inheritance of other property and succession to public offices are by patrilineal descent. Adangme occupations are fishing, trading and farming which is based on the huza system, negotiations with the seller are carried out by an elected huzatse, who later acts as the huza leader and representative. Millet was formerly the staple food, but more common crops now include cassava, yams, corn, plantain, cocoa, lineage members generally return to the traditional lineage home from the huza farms several times a year to participate in the festivals of their lineage gods.
There are also many annual festivals, linguistically, the Ga-Adangbe speak the Kwa languages Ga and Adangme and are a patrilineal people.
Adangme is exclusively closer to the original Ga—Dangme languages than the Ga language, the Ga people celebrate the Homowo festival, which literally means hooting at hunger.
This festival originated several centuries ago and it is celebrated in remembrance of a great famine that hit the Ga people in the sixteenth century. It is mainly a food festival which celebrates the passing of that period in Ga history 6. Winneba has a population of 55, Winneba, traditionally known as Simpa, is a historic fishing port in south Ghana, lying on the south coast, kilometres east of Cape Coast.
The current member of parliament is Alexander Kwamina Afenyo-Markin, from pre-colonial times through the establishment of the British colony the Gold Coast, Winneba served as a port town between Europe and the-then. The town has a musical tradition and currently boasts of several renowned musical groups in the country, including the Winneba Youth Choir, the Osimpam Ompeh group.
The University of Education, Winneba is one of the institutions in Ghana. Elmina — Elmina is the first European settlement in West Africa and it has a population of 33, people. Prior to the arrival of the Portuguese, the town was called Anomansah, innear the coast at Elmina was fought a large battle between a Castilian armada of 35 caravels and a Portuguese fleet for hegemony of the Guinea trade.
Fante Confederacy - Wikipedia
It was Portugals West African headquarters for trade and exploitation of African wealth. The original Portuguese interest was gold, with 8, ounces shipped to Lisbon from to ,22, ounces from toand 26, ounces by the start of the sixteenth century. Later the port expanded to tens of thousands of slaves channeled through the trading post of Elmina. Bythe Portuguese were transporting slaves from as far away as Benin, accounted for 10 percent of the trade in Elmina, the location of Elmina made it a significant site for reprovisioning ships headed south towards the Cape of Good Hope on their way to India.
After years of Portuguese wealth on the Elmina Coast, the Dutch learned of the activity taking place through Barent Eriksz of Medenblick, one of the oldest traders. The Dutch West India Company captured it inin subsequent centuries it was used for the slave trade. The British attacked the city inbut it remained in Dutch hands untilElmina is also home to Fort Coenraadsburg on St.
Jago Hill, built by the Portuguese in under the name Forte de Santiago, it was used for commerce. In it was conquered and remained by the Dutch, after the conquest of Elminas main castle, today, Elminas main economic industry is fishing and tourism. The first Europeans to arrive at the coast were the Portuguese in and they encountered a variety of African kingdoms, some of which controlled substantial deposits of gold in the soil.
Inthe Portuguese built the Castle of Elmina, the first European settlement on the Gold Coast, from here they traded slaves, gold, knives, beads, mirrors, rum and guns. News of the successful trading spread quickly, and eventually British, Dutch, Danish, Prussian, the European traders built several forts along the coastline.
The Gold Coast had long been a name for the used by Europeans because of the large gold resources found in the area. The slave trade was the exchange for many years. The British Gold Coast was formed in after the British government abolished the African Company of Merchants in and seized privately held lands along the coast.
They also took over the interests of other European countries, purchasing and incorporating the Danish Gold Coast in Britain steadily expanded its colony through the invasion of local kingdoms as well, particularly the Ashanti, the Ashanti people had controlled much of the territory of Ghana before the Europeans arrived and were often in conflict with them. They are the largest ethnic community in Ghana, four wars, the Anglo-Ashanti Wars, were fought between the Ashanti and the British, who were sometimes allied with the Fante.
During the First Anglo-Ashanti War, the two groups fought because of a disagreement over an Ashanti chief and slavery, tensions increased in during the Second Ashanti War when the British sacked the Ashanti capital of Kumasi.
The Third Ashanti War occurred because the new Ashanti ruler Asantehene wanted to exercise his new title, from — the British and Ashanti fought in the Fourth and final Ashanti War, where the Ashanti fought for and lost their independence.
In the Ashanti Uprising took place, resulting in the British capture of the city of Kumasi, at the end of this last Ashanti War, the Ashanti people became a British protectorate on 1 January Byall of the Gold Coast was a British colony, with its kingdoms, the British exported a variety of natural resources such as gold, metal ores, diamonds, ivory, pepper, timber, grain and cocoa. The British colonists built railways and the transport infrastructure which formed the basis for the transport infrastructure in modern-day Ghana.
They also built Western-style hospitals and schools to provide modern amenities to the people of the empire, bythe native population was demanding more autonomy in the wake of the end of the Second World War and the beginnings of the decolonisation process across the world.
ByBritish Togoland, the Ashanti protectorate, and the Fante protectorate were merged with the Gold Coast to create one colony, inthe colony gained independence under the name of Ghana. By the late century, the British, through conquest or purchase occupied most of the forts along the coast 9. Denkyira — Denkyira was a powerful nation of Akan people that existed on peninsula Ashantiland from Like all Akans they originated from Bono state, before Denkyira was called Agona.
The ruler of the Denkyira was called Denkyirahene and the capital was Jukwaa, later the capital of Denkyira moved to Abankeseso.
The two fugitive chiefs fled towards the coast and begged the Fante confederacy to protect them. Their wish was granted. Enraged beyond all measure, in Osei Bonsu marched against the Fante with the full strength of his army. Fante militiamen were no match for the well-drilled, professionally led Asante soldiers. The entire coastal region was quickly invaded. The Asante torched villages and took their enemies as slaves. Thousands of Fante men, women, and children fled from the onslaught.
With hundreds of Fante refugees, they came to the gates of Fort William in Anomabu, a substantial British Merchant fortress. They pleaded with the British, traditional Fante allies, for sanctuary. The governor, Colonel George Torrane, granted them refuge.
Cape Coast Castle was originally built by the Swedes inwho were attracted to the region by gold-dust and slaves. At first a wooden palisade, the fort grew to an elaborate stone fortress, with a large dungeon that held slaves in cramped, inhuman conditions. The fort was taken by the Danes inwho were in turn driven out by the British in It was the center of British administration on the gold coast.
It is remembered solemnly today as the loading-point for many thousands of slaves before their transport to the New World.
Torrane tried to negotiate with the Asante, but failed due to Fante interference with his emissaries. As the Asante host moved towards the castle, thousands of Fante refugees gathered around the walls, pleading for entry. The British allowed in two-thousand before the Asante started their attack.
Any Fante resistance was quickly destroyed and the Asante began to slaughter the gathered Fante outside the gates. As the Asante gathered closer around the castle walls, British troops opened fire. Fort William was only garrisoned by a few dozen soldiers who worked overtime to defend the fort against the onslaught. Because the Asante lacked artillery, they were unable to make headway against the stone and brick fortifications. British cannon rained down grape-shot, killing 30 men with each blast.
Despite horrific casualties, the Asante pressed against the main gate of the castle, but were unable to batter it down. The Asante suffered 3, casualties over six hours of fighting, before finally retiring at sundown. Close-quarter musket and cannon fire had proved devastating against the closely packed Asante soldiers, though they managed to kill or capture most of the Fante outside the fort.
Roughly 8, Fante were found dead.
The Asante-Fante War of 1806-1807 and the Battle of Anomabu
It was the first time British and Asante soldiers had fought each other. It is possible that Torrane had been unaware that Aputai and Otibu were Asante fugitives, and felt the battle was the result of misunderstanding.
Even after such a ferocious attack, this demonstrated the reputation of the Asante king that Torrane knew his envoys would be safe in his hands. The king received the envoys, listened to the message, and returned them to Cape Castle. Torrane was told that Osei Bonsu would only negotiate with him in person.The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8
This was likely a power play, but Torrane relented. Dressing in his scarlet uniform, Torrane left with his officers to address the king. The British were impressed with grandeur and pageantry of the Asante court, who warmly received the soldiers.
- Fante Confederacy
- Fante Confederacy
In his desire to make peace with the Asante king, Torrane betrayed the Assin chiefs he previously offered protection.
The two men were bound to be given over to the Asante. Then, in a move that stunned his own officers, Torrane moved to sell the two-thousand Fante refugees in Cape Castle as slaves in the Americas. Although it is difficult to find information, it is known that Torrane was a man of significant personal debt. For an absurd third time, Aputai managed to escape before Torrane could hand him over to the Asantehene.
His fellow Assin chief, however, the old and blind Kwadwo Otibu, was given over and gruesomely killed. The slippery Aputai would rally Assin forces and continue to fight the Asantes in pitched battles and guerilla conflicts for years to come; his eventual fate in unknown. He only was able to free a handful before dying of dengue fever. Osei Bonsu felt that the British had submitted to his will; indeed the negotiations were strongly in his favor— Torrane acknowledged Asante control over the coastal region.
Indeed, Osei Bonsu developed a fondness for the British and was happy to receive them at his court. Further Conflict with the Fante: The African Company had worked for fifty years to build good relations with the Fante, whose refugees had been betrayed and enslaved.
Torrane was removed as governor in December ofand he died the next year.